Psychology Test 3

Psychology Test 3 - Moore 1 Chapter Eight: Motivation and...

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Moore 1 Chapter Eight: Motivation and Emotion Motivation a. Definition: factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior b. Motive: needs or wants (why) that drive goal-directed behavior c. Different types or sources of motivation i. Biological ii. Psychological iii. Psychosocial Biological Motivation a. Instinct theory: behavior is motivated by instincts i. Instincts: fixed, innate responses that are species-specific b. Drive theory: behavior due to drives that arise from biological needs i. Biological needs are food, water, sleep, etc. ii. Need: state of deprivation or deficiency (water) iii. Drive reduction: relieving tension, satisfaction of a drive (drinking water) iv. Operant conditioning and learning in drive reduction v. Primary (innate, water)) and secondary drives (wealth) c. Stimulus motive: innate curiosity of novel objects (going to The Sharper Image) i. Goal is to reach an optimal level of arousal Psychological Motivation a. Incentive theory: attraction to particular goals or objects motivate people i. Incentives: rewards that motivate us and what not ii. Incentive value: degree of pull of the incentive Psychosocial Motivation i. Interpersonal: affiliation (wanting to be a part) and achievement 1. Achievement: challenging but realistic goals, if low on this dimension then are motivated to avoid failure 2. Achievement motivation vs. avoidance motivation (desire to achieve success vs. the desire to avoid failure) ii. Extrinsic motivation: external rewards (wealth and respect from others) iii. Intrinsic motivation: internal gratification (self-satisfaction) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: there is an order to human needs a. 5 levels i. Physiological needs (hunger, thirst) ii. Safety needs (housing) iii. Belongingness (intimate relationships) iv. Esteem needs (respect) v. Self-actualization (unique potentials, being all you can be) 1. Highest level Eating a. Extreme emotional states motivate more eating b. Quickie diets typically do not work c. Eating disorders i. Anorexia: self-starvation (95% are women) ii. Bulimia: binging and purging iii. Why: societal pressures Emotions a. Definition: feeling state that has physiological (arousal), cognitive (subjective, antecedents), and behavioral (expression) components b. Appraisal theory of emotions
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Moore 2 i. Event > Appraise > Feel > Action ii. Motivate action c. Approach (anger, contempt) or avoid (fear, disgust) d. Darwin: motivate and express, evolutionary roots e. Ekman’s 6 universal emotions: anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise f. More accurate in recognizing in-group facial expressions g. Display rules: cultural customs and norms regulate the expression (suppression) of certain emotions. For example, men can’t cry in America h. Happiness i. Money only to a certain level (really rich doesn’t make you happy) ii. Marital status and religion are correlated with more happiness iii. Kids: not so much only in ideal but not in reality (only when think about them, but
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course PSYC 104 taught by Professor Reysen during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Psychology Test 3 - Moore 1 Chapter Eight: Motivation and...

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