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HumanGeographyFinal

HumanGeographyFinal - Chapter 9 Political Geography...

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Chapter 9: Political Geography Political Geography: the study of the political organization of the world Nation: a group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language or a history or political identity. A culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals State: a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government. To be a state, an entity must be recognized by other states Nation-State: a politically united people of common heritage, homeland, and culture, speaking the same language and/or sharing a particular religion that achieves independence as a separate country. This is an ideal form. Multistate Nation: a nation with more than one state (ex. Transylvania) Multinational State: a state with more than one nation (ex. Former Yugoslavia) Gerrymandering: the practice of redistricting for partisan purposes. The process of redrawing the boundaries of legislative districts to unfairly favor one political party over another. Goal is to maximize vote while decreasing wasted vote. Stateless nation: a nation without a state (ex. Kurdistan) Territory: the delimited area over which a state exercises control and which is recognized by other states Sovereignty: the exercise of state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law Territorial Integrity: a government has the right to keep the borders and territory of a state in tact and free from attack Citizenship: category of belonging to a state that includes civil, political, and social rights Nationalism: feeling of belonging to a nation, as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs North/South Divide: the differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere. The countries in the northern hemisphere colonize the countries in the southern hemisphere Frontier: an area or zone of separation between states (now=rare) Boundary: a line of no width dividing states (now=common) Geopolitics: the study of a state beyond its borders. The interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations Centripetal Forces: some force that acts as a unifying force (nationalism) Centrifugal Forces: a force that disrupts internal order and encourages the destruction of a country (civil war) Unitary State: country with a high centralized government with relatively few internal cultural contrasts (Russian state under Czar) Federal State: lacks centralized government and with power spread between a decentralized federal government, the state, and local politicians (US and Britain) Regionalism: a feeling of collective identity based on a populations politico- territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
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