Chapter+23+ The Immune System

Chapter+23+ The Immune System - Chapter 23 The Immune...

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Chapter 23 The Immune System Quiz Polycythemia is a condition in which the hematocrit is high All blood cells develop from bone marrow Increasing the action of the skeletal muscle pump would most directly affect venous return During systole the ventricles empty completely of blood: false Chapter Outline Anatomy of the Immune System Organization of the Body’s Defenses Humoral Immunity Cell-Mediated Immunity Immune Responses in Health and Disease Immune Dysfunctions Lymphoid Tissues Bone marrow Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes Tonsils Adenoids Appendix Peyer’s patches Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone Marrow + Thymus = Central Lymphoid Tissue Bone marrow Hematopoietic stem cells: precursor for all blood cells Leukocytes except T lymphocytes fully develop Thymus T lymphocytes migrate from bone marrow to thymus Develop maturity in thymus Function of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissue Trap microorganisms and foreign particles Expose them to leukocytes in high Concentrations Spleen and Lymph Nodes Filter blood and lymph Tonsils and Adenoids
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Trap inhaled particles Appendix (least important) and Peyer’s Patches (one small intestine) Trap ingested particles Non-Specific Defenses External Defenses Inflammation Interferons Natural Killer Cells The Complement System Nonspecific Defenses :External Defenses Physical Barriers Skin Mucous membranes (secrete mucus, mouth anus eyes etc) Mucus Chemical Barriers Secretions from sebaceous(oil glands) and sweat glands pH = 3-5 (acidic) Sebaceous glands secrete oily substance into hair follicles Tears have lysosymes, break down bacterial membranes Nose Digestive tract (low pH kills) Ears (wax) Respiratory tract (ciliated cells mucus) o Smokers kill these ciliated cells o More prone to coughs and lung disease Nonspecific Immunity:Cellular Bacterial carbohydrates flag the cell for phagocytic attack. 2 major groups of phagocytic cells: (cell eating) Neutrophils: 1 st to arrive at infection. Short lived Macrophages and monocytes. (30 bacteria before they die) “Big Eaters” Long lived Apc – antigen presenting cells Inflammatory Response Non-specific response in tissue space
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Histamine released from mast cells causes: Release of Tissue Necrosis Factor α (TNFa) Leaky capillaries swelling ( so more can ooze out) Increased blood flow to the area redness & heat pain (because of swelling) INFLAMED Increased in macrophages to engulf invaders pus (not a requirement) Warns of injury/infection May stimulate release of pyrogens --> fever (pyrogens- chemical that increases body temp) Causes liver to pull iron out of blood Bacteria cant produce over certain temps Five Steps of Inflammation Macrophages engulf debris and foreign matter
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIOL 2160 taught by Professor Kt during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter+23+ The Immune System - Chapter 23 The Immune...

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