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A mechanis9c understanding of phenotypic plas9city is

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Unformatted text preview: evolu9on of structural and physiological innova9ons, we have a limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A mechanis9c understanding of phenotypic plas9city is not only important for developmental biology, physiology, evolu9onary biology, and ecology, but also has biomedical implica9ons because impaired plas9city o>en leads to diseases. Phenotypic Plas8city •  Can be irreversible or reversible –  Irreversible •  Polyphenism – developmental plas8city –  Reversible •  Acclima0on – under laboratory condi8ons •  Acclima0za0on – natural environment Physiology and Evolu8on •  Diversity of anatomic and physiologic strategies animals use to cope with their environment •  Two types of ques8ons –  Proximate cause •  How did these develop? –  Ul0mate cause •  Why are these changes helpful? Adapta8on •  Two dis8nct meanings –  Change in a popula8on over evolu8onary 8me (i.e., many genera8ons) •  Most common usage •  Defini8on used in this book –  Synonym for acclima8on •  OSen used by physiologists but Many evolu8on biologists argue this is an incorrect usage Basis for Evolu8on and Natural Selec8on –  Varia8on among individuals for specific traits –  Traits must be heritable –  Traits must increase fitness •  That is, must increase reproduc8ve success –  Rela8ve fitness of different genotypes depe...
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