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236+Manual+09+Optics+in+2D - OPTICS IN 2D Physics 236...

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Newton’s lab notebook showing his study of the refraction of light (ca. 1672). OPTICS IN 2D Physics 236 Spring 2013 1 Introduction In Optics in 2D you’ll trace light rays (in two dimensions) through optical media using a single-ray or a multi-ray projector. In this manner the basic laws governing the refraction and focusing of light may be deduced. In Optics in 3D an optical bench will be used to study the imaging of real lenses which, of course, are used to focus light in three dimensions. It is first easier, however, to work with individual, discrete rays. We will begin this lab by studying what happens when a beam of light is incident on a piece of material. First, we will study the refracted light that travels through the material, and test Snell’s law (Section 4), which tells us how much a particular beam will be refracted. Next, we will find that the light reflected from the material has interesting polarization properties, looking in particular at Brewster’s angle (Section 5). In Section 6, we will observe the phenomena of total internal reflection, which can occur in some optical media. We will then examine lenses, both converging (Section 8) and diverging (Section 9). By the end of this lab, you should know what is meant by the “index of refraction” of a material and how to use Snell’s Law to relate the angle of incidence to the angle of refraction. You should know what a focal plane is and how to find it for converging and diverging lenses and mirrors, both experimentally and by calculating from the shape using the lensmaker’s equation. You should know what kinds of aberration may be present and in what cases they appear. 2 Theory Before starting this lab, you should be familiar with the following physical concepts. If you need to review them, or if you haven’t yet discussed them in your lecture course, consult the indicated section in McKay, Physics 235 Coursepack Lecture Notes. Snell’s law and the index of refraction, §26.1-2 Total internal reflection, §26.3 Dispersion of light and prisms, §26.5 Lenses and image formation, §26.7-8 Polarized light, §24.6 1
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Brewster’s Angle, §26.4 2.1 The Index of Refraction The velocity of light inside a medium differs from the velocity of light in vacuum. The amount that the velocity changes also varies with the wavelength, λ of the light. We use the index of refraction, n ( λ ) to relate the speed of light in the medium, v ( λ ) to the speed of light in vacuum, c . Please note that n ( λ ) means that the index is a function of the wavelength, not multiplied by the wavelength. n ( λ ) c v ( λ ) (1) In most media, n ( λ ) does not change much with λ , so we often approximate n ( λ ) by a value, n , which is an average value for visible light ( λ 580 nm yellow). Typically, n = 1 . 3–2.5 for dense optical media such as plastic or glass.
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