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Prevalence is a frequently used epidemiological

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Unformatted text preview: he size of the population under consideration who are initially disease free. Prevalence is a frequently used epidemiological measure of how commonly a disease or condition occurs in a population. Prevalence measures how much of some disease or condition there is in a population at a particular point in time. Incidence rate • Schizophrenia incidence rates per 10,000, for men: • Schizophrenia incidence rates per 10,000, for women: • 9.4 for ages 15-19 • 1.6 for ages 15-19 • 5.6 for ages 20-24 • 1.3 for ages 20-24 • 3.3 for ages 25-29 • 4.1 for ages 25-29 • 0.9 for ages 30-34 Prevalence: 1-2% (of the population) 
 = 2.2 million people in the US Total number of staffed beds in US hospitals: 924,333 ! http://www.aha.org/research/rc/stat-studies/fast-facts.shtml The brain of schizophrenics: enlarged ventricles, but nothing obvious Mice expressing “disrupted in schizophrenia 1” (DISC1; scottish family; chromosome 1 and 11 translocation breakpoint includes this gene): reduced synaptic spine density --> larger ventricles? Neocortical volume reduction: 
 small but significant Morphological disorganization - but not degeneration - in hippocampus (and elsewhere) unreliable correlates Frontal cortex hypometabolism: controversial finding Causes: I. Psychodynamic concepts: Diagnosis and classification as a fruitless endeavor; not a brain disease; rather, focus on the nature and cause of intrapsychic conflicts. • Freud: “disharmonious” mental states that were exaggerations of normal psychic functions, rejected the idea of a brain disease • prominent psychoanalyst Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, MD, argued - in 1948 - that schizophrenia was caused by mothers who were simultaneously overinvolved with and rejecting of their affected children Causes: II. Prenatal influenza and other early stressors? ORIGINAL RESEARCH • First trimester influenza increases risk - but not a universally confirmed hypothesis. FUNDING: There was no funding for the development and writing of this arti...
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