This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: or 'breath escaped
from his mouth'. x 'Hunting seals' tended to become 'fishing'. x 'Canoe' tended to become 'boat' and 'paddles' to become
'oars'. Constructive Memory
"The reproduction [referring to a recall protocol] is a beautiful
illustration of a strong tendency to rationalize, common to all my
subjects. Whenever anything appeared incomprehensible or [odd],
it was either omitted or explained. Rather rarely this rationalization
was the effect of a conscious effort. More often it was effected
apparently unwittingly, the subject transforming his original without
suspecting what he was doing wrong."
“Remembering is not the re-excitation of innumerable fixed, lifeless
and fragmentary traces. It is an imaginative...construction, built out
of the relation of our attitude towards a whole active mass of
organized past reactions or experience. It is thus hardly ever really
exact.” -- Bartlett (1932) Schema
Generalized conceptual knowledge
used in understanding.
used v Meaningfully
Tells organizes concepts. us what to expect and also what
unstated information we can infer.
unstated Script (Event Schema)
– v Walk into restaurant
Look for table
Decide where to sit
Go to table
Sit down Ordering
– Get menu
Give orders to waiter
Cook prepares food v Eating
– v Cook gives food to waiter
Waiter delivers food
– Waiter delivers bill
Leave restaurant Evidence for scripts
People agree on what is in script.
v Recall things in script order.
v Faster reading.
v Recall script items that were not in story.
v Scene Schema
v People correctly remembered things
consistent with schema (desk, chair).
– Even though they spent less time looking at
expected Memory not as good if no expectations one
way or other (bulletin board).
v False memory for things that were not in
office but are in scene schema (books).
v Story (Narrative) Schema
v Episode – exposition, complication, resolution....
View Full Document