Copy_of_Psychology_Notes_-_Chapter_10.docx - Psychology Notes \u2013 Chapter 10 Intelligence in Historical Perspective Two scientists had major roles in

Copy_of_Psychology_Notes_-_Chapter_10.docx - Psychology...

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Psychology Notes – Chapter 10 Intelligence in Historical Perspective Two scientists had major roles in studying and measuring mental skills Intelligence: The ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, and deal with environmental changes. Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability Cousin of Darwin Genius seemed to occur within certain families Famous people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them more fit for thinking than stupider people Tried to show biological basis of famousness by showing people where more socially and occupationally successful would perform better on his original tests of reaction speed, hand strength and sensory acuity. Measurements of the “efficiency of the nervous system” o Measures of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability like academic and job success Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests 20 th century, French psychologist Alfred Binet began the modern intelligence-testing movement He trained Galton Binet was interested in solving a problem o Certain children seemed unable to learn properly from normal public schooling o Binet trying to find a way to identify these kids early so they can be in sp-ed classes 2 assumptions about intelligence o 1. Mental Abilities develop with age o 2. Rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is constant over time A kid who sucks at age 5 compared to his peers will still suck at age 10 Developing a measure of mental skills o Binet asked teachers what kinds of problems kids could solve at age 3, 4, 5, ect. Through schooling years o Used kids’ answers to make a standardized interview an interviewer could use to assess the mental age of a kid compared to their actual age Mental age : Mental level at which a child is performing on the standardized test Eg. if an 8 y/o could answer questions at the age 10 group, their mental age is 10 y/o o Practical implication Education system in France was adjusted so a kid’s mental age was considered in school placements
Mental Age expanded by German psychologist William Stern to provide a ratio of mental age to chronological age o Intelligence Quotient (IQ) : Old definition; Mental age over chronological age times 100. Today, IQ is based on averages for a tested person’s age group (Old) Kids with over 100 were great, under 100 was shit, 100 was average (Old) An 8 y/o with mental age of 10 would be the same as 16 y/o with mental age of 20 Problems Many basic skills measured in old intelligence tests were acquired by age 16, so it loses usefulness for adults Doesn’t account for some intellectual skills showing decline at advance ages Solution Today’s IQ scores are based on a person’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age, with a score of 100 corresponding to the average performance of that age group Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing Industry Emerges Lewis Terman, Stanford prof., revised Binet’s test for the US in English and rewriting it a bit to fit

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