2300 book notes

Nature of motivation motivation psychological forces

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Unformatted text preview: s that represent their employees' interests o collective bargaining - negotiations between labor unions and managers to resolve conflicts and disputes about issues such as working hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and job security Motivation The Nature of Motivation • Motivation - psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence o persistence - whether people keep trying or given up o effort - how hard people work o explains why people behave the way they do • Intrinsically motivated behavior - behavior that is performed for its own sake o motivation comes from doing the work itself o many managers • Extrinsically motivated behavior - performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment o car salesman who is motivated by commission • Behavior depends on: o 1. workers own personal characteristics - personalities, values, needs o 2. nature of their jobs - are they being enriched o 3. the nature of the organization - culture, structure, how rewards such as pay are distributed • Prosocially motivated behavior - behavior that is performed to benefit or help others • a behavior can be intrinsically, extrinsically, and prosocially motivated • people work in organizations to obtain certain outcomes o autonomy, responsibility, a feeling of accomplishment, and the pleasure of doing interesting or enjoyable work --> intrinsically motivated o improving lives or helping others --> prosocially o pay, benefits, job security --> extrinsic • Organizations hire people to obtain important inputs o time, effort, education, experience, skills o managers use outcomes to motivate people to contribute their inputs to the organization Expectancy Theory • motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes • • • • • • expectancy - person's perceptions about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance high expectancy results in high performance managers must make sure their subordinates believe that if they try hard, they actually succeed o through expressing confidence in their workers o through providing training so people have the expertise needed for high performance and increasing their levels of autonomy and responsibility instrumentality - a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes o employees are motivated to perform at a high level only if they think high performance will lead to outcomes such as pay, job security, bonuses etc o managers must communicate this linkage to employees by making sure outcomes are distributed based on performance, which promotes high instrumentality and motivation Valence - how desirable each of the outcomes available form a job or organization is to a person o managers must determine which outcomes have high valence to employees (pay, feeling of accomplishment, enjoying one's work, etc) and make sure those items are provided when members perform at high levels High motivation results from high levels of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence Need Theories • need - a requirement or necessity for survival and well being • Need Theory - theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs •...
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This document was uploaded on 02/18/2014 for the course BCOR 2300 at Colorado.

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