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The types of goals that are most effective in

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Unformatted text preview: ange their perceptions by justifying that they are doing more work motivation is highest when as many people as possible in an organization are being equitably treated and their outcome-inputs are in balance Goal Setting Theory • Focuses on motivating workers to contribute their inputs to their jobs and organizations • focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects • goals must be specific and difficult o motivate people to contribute more inputs to their jobs o help people focus their inputs in the right direction o often leads people to create action plans • goal setting of employees boosts their acceptance of and commitment to goals • feedback must also be provided to employees about how they are doing • focusing on hard goals can actually impair the learning of about the task since a person may focus more on how to achieve the goal, and once the goal is achieved it is no longer difficult Learning Theories • focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of the desired behaviors and the attainment of goals • learning- a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience • learning can be stimulated from tough economic times or a person is seeking a pay raise or praise from a supervisor • operant conditioning theory - theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences o skinner o people will be motivated to perform at a high level and attain their work goals to the extent that high performance and goal attainment allow them to obtain outcomes they desire o linkage of specific behaviors to specific outcomes - managers can motivate organizational members to perform in ways that can help an organization achieve its goals • positive reinforcement - giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors • negative reinforcement- eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors o promotes a behavior while punishment is used to stop a behavior o entails the removal of negative consequence when functional behaviors are performed while punishment entails the administration of negative consequences • extinction - curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them • punishment - administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs o when used, follow these guidelines: ! downplay the emotional element involved in punishment; you are punishing behavior not person ! punish behaviors as soon as they happen ! do not punish someone in front of others Social Learning Theory • A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people's thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people's behavior o vicarious learning - learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person performing it and being reinforced for doing so; also called observational learning o self-reinforcement - any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to himself or herself fo...
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This document was uploaded on 02/18/2014 for the course BCOR 2300 at Colorado.

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