Physical activity is also a determinant adequate

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Unformatted text preview: relative (0.8 grams/kg/day) This suggests protein should make up 10-35% however the problem is our protein intake should be determined by our body size. Physical activity is also a determinant. Adequate Intake (AI) • Recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient • Based on observations and estimates from experiments • Used when the RDA is not yet established: e.g., calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, fluoride Difference between AI and RDA is the amount of evidence to support RDA AI is reported for some, and RDA for other. Either or. Example: Vitamin K for 15 year old male = 75 ng/day Blood clotting factor synthesis, bone protein formation Food sources: liver, green leafy vegetables, cabbage family Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) • Highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people • Consumption of a nutrient at levels above the UL is not considered safe • Protects against over-consumption Amount of micronutrient that can be ingested without experiencing toxicity like symptoms Example: Vitamin C - water soluble Taking it near the UL = not beneficial, because most of it will be excreted Anti-oxidant, prevent iron absorption, amino acid metabolism 55 year old woman = 2000 mg/day Toxicity: abdominal cramps, diarrhea, haemolytic anemia Children are most prone to vitamin toxicity LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 15 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 16 Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) • Average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance • Based on age, gender, weight, height, level of physical activity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) • Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient • Expressed as ranges (percentage of total energy) with upper and lower boundary. Nutrition Assessment Individual Level • Deficiency or excess over time leads to malnutrition • Symptoms of malnutrition • Diarrhea • Skin rashes • Fatigue • Others • Creating a “total picture” of the individual Body weight is the best predictor of cardiovascular health!! – Historical information • Health status • Diet history – intake over several days; portion sizes; computer analysis – Anthropometric measurements • Height and weight – track to identify trends – Physical examinations – Laboratory tests LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 17 NUTRITION INFORMATION Registered Dietitian • College of Dietitians of Ontario • Scientific information database: PubMed • Credible websites • See Table H1-2 (page 32) • Health Canada ( • Canadian council of Food and Nutrition ( • University, hospital, health network websites LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013...
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