We have a storage capacity as we burn through the

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Unformatted text preview: carb diet could impair those processes. So our body breaks down protein in our muscles. Liver and skeletal muscles. We have a storage capacity, as we burn through the carbs they stay depleted unless we replace what was lost. Example food sources: Simple or complex CHO Mostly plants, and rarely in animal products (milk) Problems/diseases specific to CHO: - We store carbohydrates as glycogen - In plants: carbs are found as starch, sugars, and dietary fibre Diabetes mellitus We ingest fibre but we can't break it down. 2) Lipids • Fats, oils, cholesterol, phospholipids Purpose: 1) Building block of phospholipids and glycolipids Structure and stability to cell membranes 2) Protein modification by attaching to fatty acids 3) Fuel Dense form of energy - we can make a lot of ATP to burn fat 4) Derivatives serve as hormones and intracellular messengers Take in and form a number of different molecules Storage: White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue (fatty tissue found around our internal organs) Adipose tissue made up of fat cells. Example food sources: Meat, dairy etc. Problems/diseases specific to lipids: Excessive intake leads to many diseases (ex. coronary) Unsaturated = healthy Trans/Saturated Fat = bad LS 2N03 – Human Nutrition for Life Sciences D.M. Pincivero, 2013 9 3) Protein Purpose: Amino acids are the building blocks. AA are assembled in different order and yields different structure and function. Provide structure and energy if necessary. If carbs are not available some amino acids can be converted into glucose (glucogenic). Storage: No central storage location. They are found in all of our tissues. AA are circulating through our body. Example food sources: Meat, fish, dairy, legumes Animal based sources are better that plant based foods - greater amount and quality. We are eating skeletal muscles which are made up of protein. Some plants are high in protein: soy, lentils Problems/diseases: Kwashiorkor: lack of dietary protein, fat deposition into liver, swelling Marasmus: muscle wasting and fat depletion Excess: heart disease (increased fat), cancers (colon, kidney, prostate, breast), osteoporosis (increased Ca+ excretion) Non-protein nitrogenous compounds • Composed of amino acids, but not considered to be protein All are peptides - connecting two or three animo acids together Examples: • • • • • Glutathione Works with vitamin C as an anti-oxidant Carnitine Molecule mitochondria uses to break up fatty acids for energy Carn...
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