12-5-2007 Steel and Al

12-5-2007 Steel and Al - Outline for Lecture#32 I Making...

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I. Making steel Casting Sand, investment, die, etc. Examples and considerations Pressure molding Pressure, transfer, injection, blow Deformation processing Forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing Hot, warm, cold Powder processes Sintering, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) Slip casting of ceramics Specialty methods Spray forming, vapor deposition, electro-forming, etc.  Outline for Lecture #32:
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Steel production: http://science.howstuffworks.com/iron3.htm Iron ore -> Pig Iron Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO -> 3CO 2 + 2Fe 2Fe really: 92% Fe, 3-4% C, .5-3% Si, .25-2.5% Mn, .04-2%P, trace S Pig Iron -> Steel 2Fe + Air (O 2 ) -> Fe (purer) + slag Finishing Blooming, roughing, finishing mills (rolling).
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Iron ore : To make iron, you start with  iron ore , a  ro c k  tha t c o nta ins  a hig h c o nc e ntra tio n o f  iro n. C o m m o n iro n o re s  inc lude :  Hematite  - Fe 2 O 3  - 70 %  iro n  Magnetite  - Fe 3 O 4  - 72 %  iro n  Limonite  - Fe 2 O 3  + H 2 O  - 50 to  66 %  iro n  Siderite  - Fe C O 3  - 48 %  iro n Iro n is  ple ntiful -- 5 pe rc e nt o f the  Ea rth's   c rus t is  iro n, a nd in s o m e  a re a s  it  c o nc e ntra te s  in o re s  that c o ntain as   m uc h a s  70 %  iro n.   O ne  thing  that g ave  c e rta in c o untrie s  a n  e dg e  b e twe e n the  15th a nd 20th  c e nturie s  was  the  availa bility o f iro n o re   de po s its . 
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course MECHENG 352 taught by Professor Hemker during the Spring '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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12-5-2007 Steel and Al - Outline for Lecture#32 I Making...

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