Lecture_03-01-21-2014

Lecture_03-01-21-2014 - Lecture 3 Popula/on Gene/cs January...

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Lecture’3:’Popula/on’Gene/cs’ January’21st’
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A’case’study’with’wolves…’ The’grey’wolf’has’been’persecuted’by’humans’everywhere’for’ thousands’of’years.’ Wolves’disappeared’in’Scandinavia’in’the’1960s.’ In’1983’a’new’wolf’pack’was’discovered’in’Sweden.’ New’popula/on’had’only’1’breeding’pair’and’never’got’bigger’ than’10’wolves’un/l’1991.’ In’2001’there’were’9-10’packs’totaling’over’100’wolves.’
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Gene/c’studies’show’the’popula/on’founded’by’a’single’ pair’of’unrelated’wolves.’ All’individuals’from’the’original’pack’descended’from’this’ one’pair.’ Star/ng’in’1991’pups’were’born’that’had’new’gene/c’ varia/on’from’a’new’male.’ Reproduc/ve’success’soared.’
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With’growing’human’popula/ons’and’habitat’ fragmenta/on’similar’stories’are’becoming’more’ common.’ But,’this’study’emphasizes’the’importance’of’gene/c’ diversity’to’the’well’being’of’a’popula/on.’ Also’illustrates’the’increase’in’technology’that’lets’us’use’ gene/c’methods’to’answer’these’sorts’of’ques/ons.’
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Gene/c’varia/on’ The’source’of’gene/c’varia/on’is’muta/on.’ No’two’individuals’are’alike’gene/cally,’unless’that’are’ iden/cal’twins!’ Remember’that’gene/c’informa/on’is’contained’in’the’ molecule’deoxyribonucleic’acid’or’DNA.’ Four’bases’(A)’adenine,’C)’cytosine,’(G)’guanine’and’(T)’ thymine.’ Coding’and’non-coding’regions’of’DNA.’ A’DNA’strand’serves’as’a’template’from’which’ messenger’RNA’(mRNA)’is’transcribed’.’ mRNA’is’translated’into’protein.’ DNA’ à ’mRNA’ à ’Protein! ’
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Muta/ons’ DNA’is’subject’to’errors.’ Subs/tu/ons’most’common’but’also’dele/ons,’addi/ons’ and’rearrangements.’ Mistakes’most’o\en’result’from’errors’in’DNA’replica/on.’ Muta/ons’can’cause’changes’in’the’amino’acid’sequence.’ GAA’TGG’CGA’GAA’ATA’GGG’ à ’GAA’TGG’CTA’GAA’ATA’GGG Leu’ Ser’ Ala ’ ’ Leu’Tyr’Pro’ ’ ’ Leu’ Ser’ Asp ’ Leu’Tyr’Pro’ Example’of’a’Non’synonymous’muta/on,’has’changed’the’ amino’acid!’
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Not’all’muta/on’cause’a’change’in’the’amino’acid’ sequence.’ GAA’TGG’CTA’GAA’ATA’GGG’ à GAG ’TGG’CTA’GAA’ATA’GGG’ Leu’ Ser’Asp’ Leu’Tyr’Pro ’ ’ Leu’ Ser’Asp’ Leu’Tyr’Pro’ Example’of’a’synonymous’or’silent’muta/on.’ Nonsynonymous’muta/ons’produce’a’new’protein.’ May’do’be^er’in’its’func/on’than’the’original’sequence,’or’ may’do’worse.’
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Lecture_03-01-21-2014 - Lecture 3 Popula/on Gene/cs January...

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