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05-02 Lecture Slides (Final)

05-02 Lecture Slides (Final) - Lecture 25 Thinking...

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5/1/13 1 Lecture’25:’ Thinking’5’(Decision’Making’2)’ PSYC’2145’ Introductory’Cognitive’Psychology’ May’2,’2013’ Announcements n The’fnal’exam,’scheduled’For’ May’7’(T)’ ¨ Section’2’(11:00):’4:30-7:00’ ¨ Section’3’(12:30):’1:30-4:00’ ¨ See’the’study’guide’on’D2L’For’inFormation’about’the’fnal’exam’ ¨ Make’sure’to’bring’pencil’&’erasers’to’the’exam’and’to’know’what’ your’student’ID#’is’ n When’you’send’me’email:’ ¨ which’section’you’are’in’ ¨ directly’quote’earlier’correspondences’when’you±re’replying’ (instead’ oF’starting’a’new’email)’ “Normative”’Models’ (covered on 04/30) n A’running’theme’For’the’thinking’lectures’ ¨ Human’thinking’oFten’deviates’From’ “Fail-saFe”’or’“ideal”’ procedures ;’instead’it’relies’on’simple’ rules’oF’thumb n Decision’making:’normative’models’(ideal)’ n “Normative”’models’oF’decision’making ¨ Theories’about’ ideal ’perFormance’under’ ideal ’circumstances’ (analogous’to’the’laws’oF’physics)’ n Examples:’Utility’theories’ ¨ Under’many’situations,’however,’utility’theories’do’not’Fully’ describe’human’decision’making’ n PreFerence’reversal’ n ²raming’e³ect’
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5/1/13 2 Decision’Making’Heuristics’ (covered on 04/30) n Tversky’and’ Kahneman±s’influential’proposal:’ ¨ People’are’more’likely’to’make’decisions’based’on’ heuristics than’utility’theories’suggest’ n Some’of’the’major’heuristics’ (1)’The’availability’heuristic’ (covered on 04/30) (2) ’The’representativeness’heuristic’ (to be covered today) (3) ’The’anchoring’and’adjustment’heuristic’ (to be covered today) n Though’often’useful,’ these’heuristics’can’bias’your’ decisions’ (1)’Availability’Heuristic’ (covered on 04/30) n A’strategy’based’on’how’easily’relevant’examples’can’be’ retrieved’from’memory’ n Example’of’“bias”’due’to’this’heuristic’ ¨ In the English language, is the letter L more likely to appear in the first position of a word or the third position of a word?
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