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04-18 Lecture Slides (Final)

# Deciding on the artwork for your newly painted

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Unformatted text preview: le: n༆  n༆  Heuristic n༆  Example: n༆  Trying to ﬁnd someone else’s PIN number (e.g., 0000, 0001, 0002, etc.) Early problem solving research focused on identifying commonly used heuristics Missionaries and cannibals 4/17/13 2:37 PM Missionaries and cannibals Duration: Type: Main area: Summary 15 minutes Experience Thinking This ZAP uses the classic Missionaries and Cannibals problem to illustrate common problem solving strategies. Introduction Everyday, you are confronted with multiple problems to solve—how much paint will it take to paint your bedroom walls? What kind of artwork should you find to decorate your newly-painted bedroom walls? Why won’t your checkbook balance? Some of these problems are well-defined problems , with a clear goal and straightforward means to solve them. For example, balancing your checkbook may involve doublechecking that you’ve entered withdrawals and deposits accurately, and that you’ve correctly calculated your balance. Likewise, if you read that one gallon of paint covers 400 square feet of wall, all you need to do is measure your room, determine the overall square footage, and decide whether to apply one coat of paint or two. Deciding on the artwork for your newly-painted bedroom is less defined, and more based on your creativity and taste than on any rules of decorating. The problems listed above are all of a more practical nature. Many problems we encounter are domain-specific; that is, our ability to solve problems in algebra, physics, statistics, requires specific kinds of knowledge and awareness of the acceptable problem solving procedures within that domain. Research on differences between novices and experts in a field (e.g., physics) has found that experts are much better at “seeing” the main strategy for solving a problem, whereas novices get distracted by surface features of a problem (e.g., whether it depicts...
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