04-23 Lecture Slides (Final)

04-23 Lecture Slides (Final) - Lecture 22 Thinking...

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4/23/13 1 Lecture’22:’ Thinking’2’(Problem’Solving’2)’ PSYC’2145’ Introductory’Cognitive’Psychology’ April’23,’2013’ Announcements n Last’(12 th )’assignment:’ 2-4-6’TASK ,’due’ TOMORROW ,’8:00’p.m.’ n Final’exam’dates/times’ ¨ Section’2’(11:00’class):’Tuesday,’May’7,’4:30-7:00’p.m.’ ¨ Section’3’(12:30’class):’Tuesday,’May’7,’1:30-4:00’p.m.’ ¨ The’study’guide’will’be’made’available’on’ 04/26’(F)’ n When’you’email’me,’please’indicate’ which’section’you±re’in’ n Check’Unit’4’grades’and’notify’any’issues’to’your’TA’by’04/30’(T)’ ¨ Mid-Term’#4,’Quizzes’#16-20,’&’ZAPS’#9-10’ n The’04/25,’04/30,’&’05/02’class’ ¨ Topic:’Reasoning’(04/25)’&’Decision’making’(04/30’&’05/02)’ ¨ Assigned’reading:’Reisberg’textbook,’Chapter’11’ Final’Grade’Calculation’ n Mid-term’exams’( 45% )’ ¨ Based’on’top’3’exam’scores’(each’worth’15%)’ ¨ The’worst’score’(out’of’4)’will’be’automatically’dropped’ n Comprehension-check’quizzes’( 20% )’ ¨ Based’on’top’20’(out’of’25)’quiz’scores’(each’worth’1%)’ n ZAPS’assignments’( 10% )’ ¨ Based’on’10’(out’of’12)’assignments’(each’worth’1%)’ n Final’exam’( 25% )’ ¨ Cumulative’(covering’both’the’new’materials’since’the’4 th mid-term’and’the’old’materials’covered’previously)’
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4/23/13 2 Brief’Review n A’running’theme’for’the’thinking’lectures’ ¨ Human’thinking’often’operates’on’the’basis’of’“rules’of’ thumb”’and’frequently’deviates’from’ideal’or’fail-safe’ procedures’ n Problem’solving’ ¨ Fail-safe’procedures:’ algorithms ¨ In’reality,’we’use’ heuristics ’(often’e±ective,’but’not’fail-safe)’ n Generate’and’test’(trial’and’error)’ n Hill’climbing’ n Means-ends’analysis’ n Working’backward’ Major’Stumbling’Blocks’to’Problem’Solving n Today²s’focus’ ¨ What’are’the’main’sources’of’failures’or’difficulties’in’problem’ solving?’ n Three’major’stumbling’blocks’ (1)’Inappropriate’mental’set’and’functional’³xedness’ (2)’Incorrect’or’incomplete’representations’of’the’problem’ (3)’Lack’of’relevant’domain-speci³c’knowledge’
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