04-23 Lecture Slides (Final)

N three major stumbling blocks 1 inappropriate mental

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Unformatted text preview: lectures ¨༊  Human thinking often operates on the basis of “rules of thumb” and frequently deviates from ideal or fail- safe procedures n༆  Problem solving ¨༊  Fail- safe procedures: algorithms ¨༊  In reality, we use heuristics (often effective, but not fail- safe) n༆  n༆  n༆  n༆  Generate and test (trial and error) Hill climbing Means- ends analysis Working backward Major Stumbling Blocks to Problem Solving n༆  Today’s focus ¨༊  What are the main sources of failures or difficulties in problem solving? n༆  Three major stumbling blocks (1) Inappropriate mental set and functional fixedness (2) Incorrect or incomplete representations of the problem (3) Lack of relevant domain- specific knowledge (1) Inappropriate Mental Set and Functional Fixedness n༆  Inappropriate mental set The tendency to keep using a non- optimal strategy based on previous successful experiences ¨༊  Example: ¨༊  n༆  ¨༊  “Why are these numbers arranged in this order?” 8, 5, 4, 9, 1, 7, 6, 3, 2, 0 Famous example: n༆  Luchin’s (1942) “water- jar” problem Obtain an exact amount of water, using three differentsized jars A, B, and C A: 21 B: 127 C: 3 Desired amount: 100 Answer: B - A - 2C 2 4/23/13 (1) In...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2014 for the course PSYC 2145 taught by Professor Cheriking during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.

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