02-14 Lecture Slides (Final)

02-14 Lecture Slides (Final) - Lecture 8 Attention...

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2/14/13 1 Lecture’8:’ Attention’1’(Selective’ Attention)’ PSYC’2145:’ Introductory’Cognitive’Psychology’ February’14,’2013’ Announcements n 5 th ’ZAPS’assignment’( BROWN-PETERSON’TASK ),’due’02/20’ (W)’8:00’p.m.’ n Readings’for’the’attention’lectures’(02/14,’02/19,’&’02/21)’ ¨ Reisberg’(Chapter’4)’---’relevant’to’all’three’lectures’ ¨ Reading’3’(available’on’D2L)’---’relevant’to’the’02/19’lecture’ n Notify’your’TA’by’ 02/15’(F)’ about’any’issues’w/’the’Unit’1’ grades’posted’on’D2L’(Quizzes’1-5,’ZAPS’1-2,’&’1 st ’mid-term)’ n 2 nd ’mid-term’exam,’scheduled’for’ 02/25’(T)’ ¨ The’study’guide’will’be’made’available’on’D2L’on’02/19’(T)’ ¨ Come’talk’to’us’if’you’didn±t’do’well’on’the’1 st ’exam’(bring’the’ exam’&’the’feedback’sheet’to’the’meeting)’ How’Do’We’Perceive/Recognize’Objects’and’Scenes? (covered on 02/07) n The’visual’system’uses’various’sources’of’ information’for’perception’&’recognition’ ¨ Information’directly’available’with’ stimulation’of’the’receptors’ n Simple’visual’features,’contours,’ orientations,’etc.’ ¨ Additional’information’based’on’our’prior’ experiences’and’knowledge’ n Consistent’perceptual’cues’or’principles’ acquired’through’experience’ ¨ Gestalt’principles’ ¨ Use’of’depth/distance’cues’ n Knowledge’and’expectations Bottom-up (data-driven) processing Top-down (conceptually driven) processing Driven’by’the’analysis’of’the’ input’given’ Driven’by’what’we’already’ know’from’our’prior’ experiences’and’contexts’ Both bottom-up and top-down processes are crucial
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2/14/13 2 Word’Superiority’Efect’ ( covered on 02/12 )’ WORK WOR K RWOK K D ? Best Worst How can we explain the word superiority effect? à Interactive activation model of word recognition Very Brief Flash Feature Level Letter Level Word Level The top-down signal from the word level leads to the word superiority effect! Neural’Basis’oF’Visual’Pattern’Recognition ( covered on 02/12 n Damage’to’the’visual’areas’oF’the’brain’can’lead’to’visual’ recognition’impairments’ n Diferent’visual’recognition’disorders’ ¨ Letters’and’words:’ Alexia’ (or’acquired’dyslexia)’ n Diferent’From’developmental’dyslexia’ ¨ Objects:’ Visual’ agnosias’ ( apperceptive’ vs. ’associative )’ ¨ ±aces:’ Prosopagnosia’
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2/14/13 3 How’Many’Subsystems’for’Pattern’Recognition? ( covered on 02/12 )’ n Farah±s’(1992)’analysis’suggests’that’ 2’subsystems ,’not’3,’ support’the’recognition’of’faces,’objects,’and’letters/words’ Crucial Crucial Main’Points’of’Today±s’Lecture n
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