02-14 Lecture Slides (Final)

Late selection is inuenced by the task demand late

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Unformatted text preview: y selective attention The “Filter” Metaphor of Auditory Selective Attention 5 2/14/13 Filter Theories of Selective Attention n༆  Key question: At what stage does the selection occur? Early Selection Theory Late Selection Theory Early Selection Theory n༆  n༆  Physical characteristics are analyzed automatically (or “preattentively”) at an early stage for both channels Selective filter “lets in” only the attended information ¨༊  The unattended information receives little meaning- based analysis Problems of Early Selection Theory n༆  Some semantic information seems to be processed in the unattended channel ¨༊  1. The “cocktail party” phenomenon n༆  People can sometimes detect their names mentioned in the unattended channel (Moray, 1959) 6 2/14/13 Problems of Early Selection Theory n༆  Some semantic information seems to be processed in the unattended channel ¨༊  2. Meaning- based switch to the to- be- ignored channel n༆  People unconsciously switch to the unattended channel if that information provides a good continuation Late Selection Theory n༆  n༆  All incoming information gets in and receives full analysis (including meaning- based analysis) Selection occurs on the basis of the full analysis Problems of Late Selection Theory n༆  Unattended messages are unlikely to be always as fully processed as attended messages 7 2/14/13 Filter Theories of Selective Attention Early Selection Theory Late Selection Theory n༆  Key question: So which theory is correct? Theoretical Synthesis: Multimode Theory n༆  Johnston & Heinz’s answer: n༆  Selection is flexible ¨༊  ¨༊  n༆  It depends Early vs. late selection is influenced by the task demand Late selection requires more attentional capacity Meaning- based selection is slower and less accurate ¨༊  If the task requires meaning- based selection, there will be measurable costs ¨༊  Evidence for the Multim...
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