Unformatted text preview: The Issues: Why Psychology is Important Psychological Disorders Psychological Services Center Phone: Fax: Office: (970) 491-5212 (970) 491-3380 Clark C-43 History of Mental Illness Mental illness has existed for thousands of years (as long as we've had humans). First mental asylums (Baghdad; Damascus) c. 800. Usually associated with demons, devils, poisoning, and the alignment of the stars. "lunatic" comes from belief in moon induced insanity History of Mental Illness Traditional Treatments Included Beating Bloodletting Castration/genital mutilation Frontal Lobotomy Hot irons placed on head Spinning in a centrifuge Trephination Medication Electroshock Exorcism Death What is a Disorder? Deviant Non-conformity Culture Specific Individual must feel distress Observers are irrelevant Gets in the way of "normal" life Distress Dysfunction Phobias Who in here thinks they have a phobia? What are you afraid of? Do you have these symptoms? Diarrhea Panic Attacks Temporary Paralysis Phobias An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. Everyone is scared of something, it is just a matter of how irrational their fear and avoidance is. 9% - 18% of Americans Interferes with their life extensively A Fun List of Phobias Anthropophobia: people (aren't we all) Ataxiophobia: disorders (ironic) Bymnophobia: nudity (showering is scary) Gamophobia: marriage (common in men) Hedonophobia: pleasure (why?) Kakorrhaphiophobia: failure (makes sense) Parthenophobia: young girls (?) Phrenophobia: going insane (you already are!) My Favorite Phobia Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia Look around, is anyone freaking out? Anyone want to guess what this is? Is the fear of.... Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia Long Words Schizophrenia A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions 1% of Americans (2+ million) Treating schizophrenia costs $62 billion/year Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations Disorganized speech/behavior, flat/inappropriate emotion Immobility & extreme negativitism, parroting Many and varied symptoms Withdrawal, after hallucinations & delusions have dissappeared Disorganized Catatonic Undifferentiated Residual Schizophrenia Symptoms Positive Symptoms Symptoms characterized by something being added Hallucinations Negative Symptoms Symptoms characterized by a lack of something Unexpressive Major Depressive Disorder A mood disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods. 10%-17% of Americans Major Depressive Disorder Diagnosis and Symptoms 5 or more of the following during any 2 week period Depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure Weight loss/Weight gain or increase/decrease of appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Diminished ability to think, concentrate or make decisions Thoughts of death or suicide Addiction Addiction 25% of Americans Physical dependence Psychic dependence Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Common features of addiction Craving and Relapse Defining Aggression Road Rage Cases resulting in assault or attempted assault Aggressive Driving Behaviors that endanger others (blocking) Behaviors that threaten or intimidate others (flashing) Behaviors that express aggression (cursing) How Common is Road Rage 1995 200 deaths & 12,000 injuries
(American Automobile Association,1997) Estimated increase of 7% per year Currently over 600 deaths & 36,000 injuries/year 67% of Traffic Fatalities 33% of Injuries 2001 Department of Transportation Countless aggressive behaviors & traffic violations (Hemenway & Solnik, 1993) How Common is Road Rage In the USA 38% report obscene gestures 28% report tailgating 25% report cutting off other drivers 24% report blocking 12% report arguing with another driver 9% report giving chase to other drivers 1% report throwing things at other drivers 1.5% report "sudden threatening moves" .5% report "brandishing a weapon" "You should have slapped her instead of shooting her."
Judge to a murder defendant 1997 Prevalence 1998 1317 women, 513 men murdered in IPV disputes (Rennison & Welchans, 2000) 3 million women receive injuries from IPV per year (Straus, Gelles & Steinmetz, 1980) (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998) 31% of women experience physical IPV Prevalence Physical IPV within married relationships 13.6% husband to wife; 21.4% wife to husband (Schafer, Caetano & Clark, 1998) Physical IPV rates appear constant; records of the Roman empire indicate similar rates of physical IPV to those during the 1970's (Dobash & Dobash, 1979) Stress and Illness Stress process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, that are threatening or challenging 40% $150+ Billion/year Stressful Life Events Catastrophes unpredictable, large-scale events e.g., war, earthquake can have significant health consequences e.g., death, marriage, divorce, loss of job make person more vulnerable to disease
http://www.rd.com/content/openContent.do?contentId=10766 http://www.rd.com/content/openContent.do?contentId=10766 Life Changes (Holmes & Rahe) Daily Hassles (Lazarus) annoying events in everyday life e.g., rush hour traffic, roommates cumulative effect on health Stress and the Heart Optimism/Pessimism Type A competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people Type B easygoing, relaxed people Research on type A personality Time urgency & competitiveness associated with poor health outcomes Negative emotions, anger, aggressive reactivity High levels of hostility increase chance of all disease (e.g., cancer) Stress & resistance to disease Indirect effects of stress on health promote jeopardizing behaviors e.g., smoking, drinking physiological effects of psychological states "mind-body" illness hypertension, headaches Psychophysiological illnesses Health Effects of Long Term Stress Glucocorticoid exposure Ulcers Blood pressure Suppressed immune system Brain damage to hippocampal formation Behavioral Genetics (Nature) Much of human behavior is influenced by genetics Hand crossing Ability to roll tongue Handedness Likelihood of wearing sunglasses What music you like What food you like Aggression The Issue Cloning Dolly the sheep clone = genetically identical Would it behave, think, feel the same way? How would you find out? Why does it matter? What about siblings? Behavioral Genetics Case studies Gender Reassignment of Infants Why reassign gender in infants? Hermaphrodites Medical complications The story of Brenda Behavioral Genetics Family Histories Genetics are passed along from parent to child (Like Father Like Son; A Chip off the Old Block; The apple doesn't fall far from the tree) Familial Traits & Aggression Familial Murders in England Behavioral Genetics Non-Human Animal Models Aggression Slave Making Ants Squirrel Gangs Chimpanzee Wars Siblings - 99.98% Parents - 99.975% Strangers - 99.95% Musa Acuminata - 50% Genetic Relatedness Behavior Genetics
Identical twins Fraternal twins Identical Twins Single fertilized egg splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms From separate eggs genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but share the fetal environment Fraternal Twins Same sex only Same or opposite sex Twin Studies & Intelligence
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 identical twins raised together identical twins raised apart fraternal twins raised together siblings unrelated raised individuals together raised together You are on a boat that overturns, it contains your 5 year old child and your 1 year old child. Neither can swim, which do you save? A) 5 year old B) 1 year old You are on the same boat but your children are 40 and 20. Neither can swim, which do you save? A) 40 year old B) 20 year old You are the proud parent of a new child. The grandparents are ecstatic. Who do you think will be kinder to the child?
A) Mother of the mother B) Mother of the father Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology: How natural selection has shaped our universal behavioral and cognitive tendencies Cross Cultural Studies Natural Selection: Mutation Survival Benefit Reproduction Evolutionary basis of behavior Children & Bedtime Tantrums Gift giving Male aggression Extraversion Risk taking & fear of risks Eating & food preferences Pet ownership Would you be more upset if you found out that your romantic partner were having sex with someone else or was becoming emotionally involved with someone else? Males
A) Sexual Involvement C) Emotional Involvement Females
B) Sexual Involvement D) Emotional Involvement What types of characteristics do you look for in a potential long term mate. A) Looks B) Intelligence C) Humor D) Income/Money Nature of Attraction Evolutionary side of attraction Men Want youth Want beauty Women Want slightly older Want good income Nurture Nurture everything that is not nature Environment Peer influence Family influence Wealth or poverty Temperature Culture Education Etc. Rags to Riches Experience affects brain development Impoverished environment Rat brain cell Enriched environment Rat brain cell Nurture of Attraction Experience Past relationships Proximity, climate Approval, similarity Approval, What is attractive? Environment Parents Peers Culture Other Factors Nature vs. Nurture Nature & Nurture Gene Environment Interaction Reciprocal Determinism Nature sets a potential range Nurture determine where within that range Height Intelligence Athletic ability Personality Twin Studies & Intelligence Nature
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 identical twins raised together identical twins raised apart fraternal twins raised together siblings unrelated raised individuals together raised together Twin Studies & Intelligence Nurture
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 identical twins raised together identical twins raised apart fraternal twins raised together siblings unrelated raised individuals together raised together Twin Studies & Intelligence
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 identical twins raised together identical twins raised apart fraternal twins raised together siblings unrelated raised individuals together raised together Nature/Nurture Debate Depression ...
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