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Lec 10 - Consciousness

Lec 10 - Consciousness - Consciousness Do YOU have...

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Unformatted text preview: Consciousness Do YOU have consciousness? – A) No B) Yes C) I am unsure Do OTHER PEOPLE have consciousness? – A) No B) Yes C) I am unsure Do ANIMALS have consciousness? – A) No B) Yes C) I am unsure Do PLANTS have consciousness? – A) No B) Yes C) I am unsure Does anyone care if you have consciousness? – A) No B) Yes C) I am unsure What is Consciousness? Consciousness – – Our awareness of ourselves and our environment Why should we study consciousness? – Influences learning, memory, happiness, etc. How would you study consciousness? Waking Consciousness Selective Attention – Focusing of conscious awareness on a specific stimulus – We receive 11 million bits of info per second – How much do we process? A) 40 B)400 C) 4,000 – Cocktail party effect – Change blindness D) 40,000 E) 400,000 Waking Unconsciousness? Conscious processing takes place sequentially (serially) – Try it. Add both rows of numbers at the same time –2+2+2+2 –1+2+1+2 Unconscious process can occur simultaneously Waking Unconscious Daydreams – Almost everyone daydreams – People prone to delinquency, violence, drugs have less fantasies (daydreams) Automaticity – Things we don’t notice consciously influence our behaviors What is Sleep Sleep – The natural periodic reversible loss of consciousness How would you study sleep? Sleep Stages Awake – Alpha – Beta Stage 1 – Theta Stage 2 – Sleep spindle – K complex Sleep Stages Stage 3 – Delta transition Stage 4 – Delta REM – Theta – Beta Sleep Cycles Sleep stages Awake 1 2 3 REM 4 0 1 2 3 4 Hours of sleep 5 6 7 Sleep Deprivation Sleep requirements Sleep debt Effects of sleep deprivation Sleep Deprivation Less sleep, more accidents Accident frequency More sleep, fewer accidents 2,800 2,700 4,200 2,600 4000 2,500 3,800 2,400 3,600 Spring time change (hour sleep loss) Monday before time change Fall time change (hour sleep gained) Monday after time change Sleep Disorders Insomnia – Fatal familial insomnia – Drug dependence insomnia Sleep apnea Narcolepsy – Cataplexy – Hypnagogic hallucination – Sleep paralysis Dream Content Everyday experiences – Work – School Recent experiences Negative experiences – 80% Why We Dream Freud’s View Manifest content – Story line – Reflects days events Latent content – Hidden meaning – Symbolic of desires – Sexual nature Why We Dream Information Processing Day’s events Memory formation Dreams repeat until information is processed fully Why We Dream Activation-synthesis Use it or lose it Random neural activity Dreams attempt to make sense of random neural activity While engaged in a conversation with a friend you hear your name from across the room, causing your attention to shift. This is – A) Change Blindness – C) Cocktail Party Effect B) Zeitgeber D) Automaticity When things we don’t consciously notice influence our behavior, this is called. – A) Change Blindness – C) Cocktail Party Effect B) Zeitgeber D) Automaticity Dreaming occurs in which stage of sleep? – A) Stage 1 D) Stage 4 B) Stage 2 C) Stage 3 E) None of the above If you wake someone in stage 1 sleep, they will – – – – A) Not know they were sleeping B) Know they were sleeping C) Won’t wake up D) Hit you with a baseball bat If you wake someone in stage 2 sleep, they will – – – – A) Not know they were sleeping B) Know they were sleeping C) Won’t wake up D) Hit you with a baseball bat Delta waves occur during? – A) Sleep paralysis – C) REM B) Stage 4 D) Stage 2 You can make up lost sleep for up to how many days before that sleep is lost forever? – A) 1 Day – C) 3 Days B) 2 Days D) 4 Days Random neural activity is one explanation for – A) Sleep – D) Insomnia B) Dreams C) Cocktail party effect Hypnosis Hypnosis Do you think that you can be hypnotized? – A) Yes B) No C) Unsure Have you ever been hypnotized? – A) Yes B) No C) Unsure Is hypnosis real? – A) Yes B) No C) Unsure Can hypnosis make someone do something against their will? – A) Yes B) No C) Unsure How would you study hypnosis? What is Hypnosis Hypnosis – Social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors will spontaneously occur – Deep relaxation increases suggestibility Hypnosis Post hypnotic amnesia – Supposed inability to recall what was experienced during hypnosis – Induced by hypnotist suggestion Post hypnotic suggestion – Suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized – May be used to control undesired symptoms and behaviors Who can be Hypnotized? Have you ever been deeply involved in TV, Movie, or a Book? – A) Yes B) No – If so you were hypnotized Everyone – to some extent – 20% are highly suggestible Hypnosis to Act Against their Will How would you study this? The Acid Test (Orne & Evans, 1965) – People willingly dipped hands into “Acid” – Later did not recall having done so – Claimed they would never do this – Control group performed same acts Unclear but seems unlikely – People are willing to do much more than they think How Does Hypnosis Work? Dissociation through Divided Consciousness – Split in consciousness – Allows some thoughts or behaviors to occur simultaneously with others Social Influence Theory – Hypnotized people are “role playing” How Hypnosis Works Drugs & Consciousness What are Drugs Almost all substances have some effect on our mental states or behavior What is the difference between a drug and a poison? Drugs Psychoactive drugs – Chemical substance that alters perceptions & mood – M&M’s make me happy but I see the world with tunnel vision. Are M&M’s a drug? A) Yes B) No C) Unsure Drugs Addiction – Physical dependence – Psychic dependence Common features of addiction – Positive reinforcement – Negative reinforcement Craving and Relapse Drugs Big effect Drug effect Tolerance – Diminishing effect with regular use Response to first exposure Withdrawal After repeated exposure, more drug is needed to produce same effect – Discomfort (physical and/or psychological) after discontinuing use Craving & Relapse Little effect Large Small Drug dose Drugs: Depressants Depressants drugs that reduce neural activity alcohol, barbiturates, opiates slow body functions Alcohol affects motor skills, judgment, and memory reduces self awareness Drugs: Depressants Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety by impairing memory and judgment Opiates opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety highly addictive Drugs: Stimulants Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine speed up body functions Drugs: Stimulants Amphetamines Stimulates neural activity, causing body function enhancement and mood changes Cocaine effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation coca leaves powder crack Drugs: Hallucinogens Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD MDMA (Ecstasy) Drugs: Hallucinogens LSD lysergic acid diethylamide a powerful hallucinogenic drug also known as acid THC the major active ingredient in marijuana triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations Drugs Biology – Predisposition Culture – Social – Religious Self medication Social Influence Theory states that hypnosis occurs because – A ) It is real – C) Latent Content B) People are role playing D) Of divided consciousness Addictions cannot be overcome without help – A) Yes B) No C) Unsure Discomfort after discontinued use is – A) Withdrawal – C) Addiction B) Dependence D) Tolerance Drugs that reduce neural activity are – A) Hallucinogens – C) Depressants B) Carcinogens D) Stimulants Alcohol impairs many functions because it – A) reduces self awareness – B) reduces neural activity – C) relies on activation synthesis – D) creates psychic dependence Drugs that create sensory images without sensory stimuli are – A) Depressants – C) Hallucinogens B) Stimulants D) Schizophrenigens Some people are more likely to use drugs due to their – A) Genetics – C) Peer group B) Religious beliefs D) Medical condition Meditation What is Meditation? – A mental state of heightened awareness and acuity – A means of altering the neuroanatomy of our brain How old is Meditation? – ≈ 5,000 years Is Meditation one thing? – There are many forms of meditation Meditation If music is the space between the notes then meditation is the space between the thoughts Lets Try It. Techniques of distraction. – Candles, Breath Counting, Koans, Prayer The role of breath. – Provides a link between Conscious and nonConscious Meditation Being Physically Still – Body falling away sensation Being Mentally Still – The connection with dreaming Meditation Neurophysiology – Learning & synaptic connections – Practice & strengthening a neural pathway – Gamma Waves All parts of the brain Indicate integrating information from all parts of brain 30X stronger in experienced meditators Meditation Physiological Benefits – Lower Cortisol baseline and stress response – Decreased BP – up to 20mm Hg – Higher quality sleep – Increased immune system function – More areas of brain active – Conscious control over many autonomic nervous system functions – Hippocampus shrinks less due to age Meditation Psychological Benefits – Less prone to Depression May be able to turn off destructive cognitive modes – Less prone to false memory – Can increase alertness, concentration, creativity, memory accuracy, awareness Meditation – some cool studies Compassion meditation (U of Wisconsin) – Brain part related to self becomes deactivated – Increased activity in left prefrontal cortex (associated with happiness) Habituation to stimuli (Tokyo University) – When interrupted by a noise our attention shifts – Attention shift is a minimum of 7 seconds Zen monks attention shift was 2 seconds – After a time we become oblivious to the noise Zen monks never become oblivious (they do not habituate) – Zen monks have greater awareness & become less distracted ...
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