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Unformatted text preview: ibiting such practices. 8 Job security remains a hallmark of public employment in the counties. This is
actually an advantage in that it allows the professional employees to devote their attention
to doing the job rather than worrying about having the job.
In Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Albert O. Hirschman (1970) proposes a typology of
responses to dissatisfaction. A theory of individual self-interest, which not only operates
in terms of the economic market but with respect to socio-political values, is primarily an
attempt to explain an organization's survival. Although Hirschman=s theory focuses on
decisions regarding the acceptance/rejection of an organization's products or services, it
can also be interpreted with regard to similar decisions by an organization's own
personnel vis-a-vis the organization itself.
Efforts to change a perceived negative situation give rise to voice. Voice is seen to
represent a political dimension that can encompass a gamut of behaviors ranging from
grumbling through participative management to full scale democracy. It represents a
viable, non-market means for assuring organizational survival.
While voice focuses internally on the advocacy of reform, loyalty represents the
employee's willingness to "stand up" for the organization. In this instance advocacy is in
response to outside criticism and is an expression of confidence in the organization.
In a series of articles Farrell and Rusbult (Rusbult1980; Farrell and Rusbult 1981;
Rusbult 1983; Rusbult and Farrell 1983; Farrell 1983; Rusbult, Farrell, Rogers, and
Mainous 1988) explicitly extend Hirshman=s concept to personnel matters. As a result of 9 a multidimensional scaling of job dissatisfaction, Farrell (1983) was able to demonstrate
support for a modified version of Hirschman=s typology. To the categories of exit, voice,
and loyalty Farrell added one for neglect. Neglect indicates a condition in which
employees' give-up but stay to draw a paycheck. Neglect may involve absenteeism and
obstructionism or merely a pas...
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- Spring '14