Lectures3+4-Chapter_2-BiologicalFoundations

6 examples of early clinical and experimental studies

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Unformatted text preview: e Neurosciences 16: 320-331. 6 Examples of early clinical and experimental studies in the 19th century - 3 Wernicke discovered that patients with lesions in the posterior part of the left hemisphere were unable to understand language, but they were able to speak. Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) 7 8 The remarkable case of Phineas Gage Gage lost a large chunk of the front of his brain in a railway accident. Physically, he recovered well, but suffered a stark change in personality. Although the case was originally used to argue against functional localization because of Gage’s ability to survive and function once he recovered, the region destroyed is currently recognized as being important for human social behavior. Phineas P. Gage (1823–1860) Computer modeling from autopsy results on Phineas Gage’s skull revealed the likely trajectory of the tamping iron Wilder Penfield provided strong evidence for functional localization Mapping of sensory Used small cortex amounts of electrical current to stimulate different brain regions during surgery on an awake patient and observed the effects. Confirmed many of the localization features of the human brain. Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) From: Penfield W, Rasmussen T. The cerebral cortex of man. New York: Macmillan, 1950. 9 10 Modern views of functional specialization Parallel processing: A large number of mental functions are simultaneously processed along two or more pathways, each having their own set of dedicated anatomical modules. This arises at the earliest points in sensory processing, with different receptors having their own pathways to the brain. As information reaches higher areas that are more removed from the periphery, it can branch out and travel along multiple pathways Brain Lateralization as a Form of Functional Specialization 11 Refers to representational or other functional differences between the two hemispheres of the brain. Many functions are carried out across both hemispheres: This means that injury to one hemisphere may be of limited consequence because the same region in the opposite hemisphere can take...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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