Lectures3+4-Chapter_2-BiologicalFoundations

Lectures3+4-Chapter_2-BiologicalFoundations - 1 Biological...

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Biological Foundations of Sensory Perception Organization of the nervous system Brain function at the cellular level Techniques for studying brain function 1
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Organization of the Nervous System Debates on how brains are organized have historically contained two dominant themes: The brain as a heterogeneous collection of functionally specialized structures. The brain as a homogeneous organ in which various functions of the mind are diffuse and synergistic . 2
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Functional Specialization—History 1 Grew out of Phrenology , a theory developed by Gall, proposing that brain (and therefore behavioral) characteristics could be assessed by external landmarks on the skull Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) 3
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Phrenology didn’t survive experimental scrutiny, but it stimulated thinking about functional specialization in the brain in a way that led to more scientific attention: Studying brain lesions produced experimentally in animals followed by behavioral analysis Studying clinical cases in humans who had suffered brain damage Functional Specialization—History 2 4
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Examples of early clinical and experimental studies in the 19 th century - 1 Broca discovered that patients with lesions in the front part of the left hemisphere (like his famous patient “Tan”, postmortem brain at right) were unable to produce language, but they could understand it. Pierre Paul Broca (1824–1880) Left side of “Tan’s” brain 5
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Electrical stimulation of specific brain regions in dogs produced precise movements of the limbs. of neck muscles; +, abduction of foreleg; †, flexion of foreleg; #, movement of foreleg; ¸ , facial twitching. Original from Fritsch & Hitzig (1870/2009) Electrical excitability of the cerebrum. Epilepsy & Behavior 15: 123-130. Drawing from Gross (2007) Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 16: 320-331. Original (right) and drawing (above) from Fritsch and Hitzig’s (1870) figure of stimulation sites on the GRJ¶V FRUWH[± ǻ² WZLWFKLQJ Examples of early clinical and experimental studies in the 19 th century - 2 Gustav Fritsch (1838-1927) Edouard Hitzig (1838-1907) 6
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Examples of early clinical and experimental studies in the 19 th century - 3 Wernicke discovered that patients with lesions in the posterior part of the left hemisphere were unable to understand language, but they were able to speak. Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) 7
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The remarkable case of Phineas Gage Gage lost a large chunk of the front of his brain in a railway accident. Physically, he recovered well, but suffered a stark change in personality. Although the case was originally used to argue against functional localization because of Gage’s ability to survive and function once he recovered, the region destroyed is currently recognized as being important for human social behavior. Computer modeling from autopsy results on Phineas Gage’s skull revealed the likely trajectory of the tamping iron Phineas P. Gage (1823–1860) 8
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Wilder Penfield provided strong evidence for functional localization Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) Used small amounts of electrical current to stimulate different brain regions during surgery on an
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