Lectures3+4-Chapter_2-BiologicalFoundations

Yet in intact brains there are many differences in

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Unformatted text preview: over that function. Yet in intact brains there are many differences in apparent functionality of the two hemispheres. Andreas Vaselius (1543) view of the cerebral hemispheres Central and Peripheral Nervous System Nervous system broken down into two subdivisions: From: Bear MF, Connors BW, Paradiso MA (2001) Neuroscience: exploring the brain, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 8. Central nervous system (CNS): Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: All spinal nerves and associated neural structures that lie outside of the CNS 12 13 Cerebrum This is the largest part of the human brain, consisting of the two cerebral hemispheres 14 Cerebral hemisphere subregions Each hemisphere is divided into four anatomical subdivisions called lobes, based on separating landmarks in brain anatomical structure FRONTAL TEMPORAL PARIETAL OCCIPITAL 15 Diagram of the Cerebral Lobes Damage to different cerebral lobes affects different behavioral functions 16 White matter: made up primarily of fibers that interconnect brain areas that are surrounded by a protective fatty sheath called mylelin Grey matter: regions of the brain that are especially rich in the bodies (called “soma”) of nerve cells Cerebral cortex: a band of grey matter that makes up the surface of the cerebrum. 17 Human cerebrum is highly convoluted Gyri (hills) and sulci (valleys) result in a dramatic expansion in surface area of the cerebral cortex relative to what the surface area would be In a brain with a smooth surface. 18 Human Cortical Cytoarchitectonics: Regional Differences in Cellular Architecture Brodmann areas – a mapping system for dividing up areas in the cerebral cortex defined by Korbinian Brodmann in 1909 based on differences in the size of cell bodies and their spatial organization into layers Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) 19 Human Cortical Cytoarchitectonics: Locations of Major Sensory & Motor Areas Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Subcortical Structures: Collections of brain cells that reside below the cerebral cortex - 1 Thalamus: Important subcortical structure involved in sensory and motor transmission to and from the cortex 20 Subcortical Structures: Collections of brain cells that reside below the cerebral cortex - 2 Cerebellum Has a very high density of cells; contains almost 50% of the cells in the brain in a volume of about 10% of the brain, and is highly connected with most parts of the...
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