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Exam 3 Study Guide ANA 113

Exam 3 Study Guide ANA 113 - Respiratory 1 , 2...

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Respiratory 1. Name the three functions of the nasal cavity: Warm air that passes into the body, sound resonance and sense of smell. 2. Which four bones contain the nasal sinuses? Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Maxillary 3. What are the divisions of the pharynx? Nasopharynx – upper most region of pharynx, the Eustachian tube connects throat to the middle ear which equalizes the pressure in your ear. Pharyngeal tonsils are found here. Oropharynx middle region; 1 st portion of the pharynx you pass through. Lingual and Palatine tonsils are found here. Laryngopharynx lower region; this is where food passes to the esophagus and air passes to the larynx. 4. What is the leaf shaped plate of cartilage which is attached inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage? Epiglottis – located inferiorly to the thyroid cartilage, this is the flap that deflects food into esophagus. 5. What is posterior to the trachea? Esophagus. 6. Where does the trachea bifurcate? The Trachea bifurcates at the sternal angle resulting into two primary bronchis. 7. What are the four branches after bifurcation and what is significant at each branch? Primary Bronchi – located at the sternal angle, this is made of pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Contains mostly Cartilage and very little smooth muscle. Secondary Bronchi – One on each lung lobe, the Right lobe contains two secondary bronchi while the left lobe contains three secondary bronchi. Smooth muscle is increased. Tertiary Bronchi – split from secondary bronchi, one each of every bronchi pulmonary segment. Cartilage decreases as the smooth muscle increase. CUBOIDAL epithelium like. Terminal bronchioles – No cartilage, only smooth muscles and open into alveolar sacs. 8. How many lobes make up the left and right lungs? Right – two lobes and Left – three lobes.
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9. Explain the Rule of 2’s: Mid clavicle – Lung = Rib 6, Pleura = Rib 8 Mid Axillary – Lung= Rib 8, Pleura = Rib 10 Mid Clavicle – Lung= 10, Pleura = Rib 12 10. What nerves innervate the diaphragm? Phrenic Nerve = C3 C5 11. What three structures pass through the Hiatus of the diaphragm? AORTA, Inferior Vena Cava, and Esophagus. Digestive 1. What are the four salivary glands and where are they located? Buccal Gland – located in the mucous membrane of the mouth. Parotid Gland – locaed inferior and anterior to the ear, drains into the oral cavity of the 2nd upper moelar. Submandibular Gland located in the mandible – floor of the mouth. Sublingual Gland located under the mucosa in the floor of the mouth. 2. What do lysozyme and amylase do? Lysozyme cleans the teeth and destroys the bacteria. Amylase begins for digestion, breaks down starches 3. What are the four layers of the digestive tract? How do they differ?
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