Nrowchips sumchipswidth 32

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Unformatted text preview: th R and SQL. •  The WHERE clause can also be used with other Boolean operators. The keyword NOT negates a condi;on, and parentheses can be used to clarify order of evalua;on. SELECT * FROM chips WHERE date > 1990;! SELECT * FROM chips WHERE NOT width = 8;! SELECT * FROM chips WHERE NOT (width = 8 OR width = 16);! •  In both R and SQL, we can do both types of subse^ng at once. •  R: chips[chips$processor == ‘Pentium’ |! ! !chips$processor == ‘PentiumII’, ! c(‘mips’, ‘microns’)]! •  SQL: SELECT mips, microns FROM chips! WHERE processor = ‘Pentium’ OR ! processor = ‘PentiumII’;! General Syntax SELECT a>ribute(s) FROM table(s) [WHERE constraints]; [op;onal] How would we pull the years of all 32- bit processors that execute fewer than 250 million instruc;ons per second (mips), 1) in R, chips[ chips$mips < 250 & chips$width == 32, ! “date”]! 2) in SQL? SELECT date FROM chips ! WHERE mips < 250 AND width = 32;! SQL offers limited features for summarizing data - - some aggregate func;ons that operate over the rows of a table, and some mathema;cal func;ons that operate on individual values in a row. The aggregate func;ons are •  COUNT - number of rows •  SUM - total of all values for an a>ribute •  AVG - average value for an a>ribute •  MIN - minimum value for an a>ribute •  MAX - maximum value for an a>ribute SELECT a>ribute(s) FROM table(s) [WHERE constraints]; can also be func+ons of a>ributes Exercise: 1)  How many rows are in the chips table? SELECT COUNT(date) FROM chips;! 2) How many chips have a>ribute width equal to 32? SELECT COUNT(date) FROM chips WHERE width = 32;! 3) What is the average clock speed for the chips in ques;on 2? SELECT AVG(clockspeed) FROM chips WHERE width = 32;! Now answer the same ques;ons assuming chips is a data frame in R. nrow(chips); !! sum(chips$width == 32); ! mean(chips$clockspeed[chips$wi...
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