Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - 1|P ag e Chemistry 115 Chapter 2-Book 2.1...

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Binary compound? Type III: Use prefixes Yes No No Type I: Use the element name for the cation charge of the cation; use a Roman numeral after the element name for the cation Does the metal form more than one cation? Metal Present? Yes oes the compound contain Type I or Type II cations? Type II n the cation name a Roman numeral indicating the charge principle of charge balance, determine the cation charge. Type I Name the cation using the element name. 1 | P a g e Chemistry 115 Chapter 2-Book 2.1 Greeks first proposed idea of atoms No experiments so couldn’t prove it Alchemy dominated science world for 2000 years Did discover some elements The first chemist was Robert Boyle Wrote The Skeptical Chymist in 1661 2.2 Antoine Lavoisier French Chemist Verified the law of conservation of matter Mass is neither created nor destroyed Published first modern chemistry textbook Elementary Treatise on Chemistry Joseph Proust “Proust’s law” Law of definite proportion A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass John Dalton Said that if elements were composed of tiny individual particles, a given compound should always contain the same combination of these atoms Law of multiple proportions When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
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2 | P a g e Amadeo Avogadro and Gay Lussac Avogadro’s hypothesis (Law of Combining Volumes) At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles 2.3 Dalton Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1 . Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways 3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms-changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction. Created first table of Atomic Masses (Weights) 2.4 The Electron Arrhenius Some substances form a electrically charged species in a solution JJ Thomson used cathode-ray tubes to discover negatively charged particles called electrons Electrical discharges in partially evacuated tubes
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Chapter 2 - 1|P ag e Chemistry 115 Chapter 2-Book 2.1...

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