SandToSilicon32nm

The thickness of a wafer is about 1mm 4 wafer scale

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Unformatted text preview: licon discs called wafers. The thickness of a wafer is about 1mm. 4 Wafer – scale: wafer level (~300mm / 12 inch) The wafers are polished until they have flawless, mirror-smooth surfaces. Intel buys those manufacturing ready wafers from third party companies. Intel’s highly advanced 32nm High-K/Metal Gate process uses wafers with a diameter of 300 millimeter (~12 inches). When Intel first began making chips, the company printed circuits on 2-inch (50mm) wafers. Now the company uses 300mm wafers, resulting in decreased costs per chip. Copyright © 2011, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, Intel logo and Intel Core are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Fabrication of chips on a wafer consists of hundreds of precisely controlled steps which result in a series of patterned layers of various materials one on top of another. What follows is a sample of the most important steps in this complex process. 5 Copyright © 2011, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, Intel logo and Intel Core are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Ion Implantation Applying Photo Resist – scale: wafer level (~300mm / 12 inch) Fabrication of chips on a wafer consists of hundreds of precisely controlled steps which result in a series of patterned layers of various materials one on top of another. What follows is a sample of the most important steps in this complex process. In this image there’s photo resist (blue color) applied, exposed and exposed photo resist is being washed off before the next step (more details later). The remaining photo resist (blue shine on wafer) will protect material that should not get ions implanted. 6 Ion Implantation – scale: wafer level (~300mm / 12 inch) The wafer is patterned using photolithography (details of how this is done will be described later). The wafer is bombarded with a beam of ions (positively or negatively charged atoms) which embed themselves beneath the surface of the wafer to alter the conductive properties of...
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