He traveled to new york with the lomaxes who arranged

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Unformatted text preview: om this heritage collection, consider reviewing the rhythmic complexity and call- and- response texture in the two traditional African examples to see how these characteristics are fused with European structural characteristics to create a fusion of the two influences. Rhythm: Listen to the drumming that accompanies the vocals. It is in a basic quadruple meter (European influence) but this main beat is subdivided into more complex rhythmic patterns below (African influence). Melody: Notice that there are two melodies: the main one sung by the chorus, with a counter melody (actually, a single pitch ‘chant’) sung by a soloist. Harmony: The choral part uses only 4 pitches (F, E, D, and C with C functioning as the main tone) in chordal harmonies over which the soloist sings a counter melody on the single pitch of G. Texture: Although not the kind of call- and- response texture heard in traditional African music, the interplay between the soloist and the chorus does convey responsorial texture. Instrumentation: The performance consists of vocals and drums, the foundational instrumentation in traditional African music, Form: The form consists of a series of 2 line verses that are sung a total of 5 times, and using African as well English languages. “Amen Siakudumisa” Timing Section 0:00 Verse 1 0:15 0:30 0:45 1:00 Verse 2 Verse 3 Verse 4 Verse 5 Description Listen to the first verse, which integrates both English- based use of the Hebrew Christian “Amen” and African (“Siakudumisa”) in a simple, 2- line form. Repeat in English/African In all English “Amen, Sing praises to the Lord” Repeat (in all English) Begins with softer dynamics; in English/African AFRICAN AMERICAN STYLISTIC CATEGORIES (The following is displayed as a table on the website) 12 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 Africans resisted enslavement from the time of capture in Africa and throughout slavery in the Americas. Estimates of the number of Africans that were exported in the slave trade range from 10 million to 20 million, but that does not take into account the Africans who died resisting capture or who managed to commit suicide during the journey. About 60,000 slaves successfully escaped over the three- century period of bondage. Slaves also fought back through feigning illness, destroying crops, animals, machinery, and houses, and even poisoning or killing their masters. There were also organized revolts. Beginning as early as the 17th century, the number of revolts exceeded 250 before the U.S. Congress abolished the slave trade in 1808. But rather than leading to freedom, revolts generally led to death and bloody reprisals, and escapes led to recapture and often brutal punishment. Hence most Africans were forced to resign themselves to a life of slavery. During this period of slavery, three main kinds of vocal music were maintained or developed and they are described below. Work Songs Slaves were used to meet the labor needs of the specific colony, such that in the northern colonies, slaves were used for domestic work and in trade, and in the South, slaves were used for domestic and agricultural work. Because slaves’ lives were centered on labor, some of the earliest African American songs were work songs developed to accompany labor. Typically sung in a responsorial manner between a leader and the rest of the workers, these songs served the function of motivating laborers, providing a sense of community, ensuring that the work progressed at a steady pace, and coordinating movements so that when axes or hoes were used, accidents were avoided. These responsorial work songs died out when the plantation system broke up and was replaced by small farms after the Civil War, but they w...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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