4 filipino 174 vietnamese 106 korean 97 and

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Unformatted text preview: present that he was disobeying the emperor and therefore would not be able to return to China. So even though non- Chinese ridiculed these men, they didn’t dare cut their hair, as that would indicate that they had detached themselves fully from the emperor and their homeland. Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 5 race” were also denied the right to become naturalized American citizens. The Chinese Exclusion act was extended for another ten years by the Geary Act of l892. In 1904, exclusion was extended indefinitely. In 1905, President Roosevelt extracted a promise from the government of Japan (called “The Gentlemen’s Agreement”) that it would not permit the emigration of laborers to the United States. In 1923, Congress also enacted a general immigration law that included a provision prohibiting the entry of aliens ineligible to citizenship. This included Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, and Asian Indians. Occasional loopholes (such as for World War II war brides and selected refugees) allowed some to enter, but basically Asian immigrants were prevented from entering the country and those that were already here were confined largely to segregated areas called “Chinatowns” or “Japantowns” in major cities throughout the country. Although the exclusion act was repealed in December 1943 (when China became an ally of the United States in World War II) the quota for Asian immigrants was still very low. For example the quota for Chinese was set at 105 persons per year. The Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, particularly the changes in the immigration laws, re- opened American doors to Asian immigrants. 1965- Present: Immigration on an Equal Basis The Immigration Act of 1965 abolished the discriminatory national origins quota system, beginning July1, 1968. Asian immigrants since 1965 have come largely in three categories. The first consists of well- educated intellectuals, scientists, and engineers who came to the United States for advanced degrees and decided to stay. They have made significant contributions to the U.S., most notably in the areas of science and technology. The second category consists of tens of thousands who came to escape political instability or repression. A third category was created by the 1965 changes in immigration policy that gave high priority to family reunification. This greatly increased an immigration pattern known as “chain migration” in which people sought to join relatives already in the United States. Historically, the sum effect of these immigration laws was to keep the Asian American communities small, marginalized, and exploitable primarily only as labor. But the abolishing of the discriminatory quota system after 1965 meant that Asian immigration to the United States could start to be equivalent to other immigrant groups. Although Chinese Americans remain the single largest Asian American group, Asian Americans have become very diversified, beginning with a large influx of Japanese between 1898 and 1907. Asian immigrants quickly became the fastest growing immigrant group, with more than 1.5 million arriving during the 1970s as opposed to about 800,000 from Europe. Current Asian Communities in the United States. Today, Asian American communities are some of the fastest growing in the United States. At the moment (based on U.S. Census 2010) the largest groups of Asians living in Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 6 the United States, in descending order of population size are: Chinese (22.8%); Asian Indian (19.4%); Filipino (17.4%), Vietnamese (10.6%); Korean (9.7%) and Japanese (5.2%). They share...
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