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Unformatted text preview: cial contexts. The spiritual emerged in rural communities, specifically the large agricultural plantations of the pre- Civil War South. During the years of slavery, spirituals increased in number and style in the independent black churches, segregated camp and bush meetings, and in what are called the “invisible churches” on the plantations. (The churches were “invisible” because they were maintained without physical structures, as the religious gatherings of slaves often had to be kept hidden from the surveillance of whites.) Whether spirituals should be sung in the formal worship service of an established church was controversial, as many of the protestant clergymen wanted the congregations to sing the hymns and psalms of the white church.9 8 Broughton and Attlee in World Music, The Rough Guide. p. 571 9 Other ministers were more lenient and even encouraging of blacks to sing their own religious songs. 9 Gospel music, on the other hand, evolved in urban settings in the 20th century and reflects the influence of emancipation. After the Civil War, new religious denominations began to develop founded by individuals who had left the traditional churches. These new denominations fell into two categories: those that followed the conventions and procedures of the European- based “mother” churches, and those that struck out in new directions that emphasized African traditions. These later churches included various holiness and sanctified sects. In these churches, the African- based musical practices of the earlier slave “...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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