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Unformatted text preview: how it is different from the other items in that network. For example, the way people we know look to us seems to be stored in the network of what all humans look like (e.g., torso, head, two arms, two legs) but if we are trying to find someone we know in a crowd, we will look for the characteristics that distinguish them from other people in the group (e.g., facial characteristics, skin and hair color, height, and so forth). When there is high similarity with few differences, distinguishing between the two becomes more difficult (Sousa, 2006, p. 143). The potential for negative transfer is higher when concepts, principles, and data, or the labels for this information, are similar. For example in music, “whole tone” and “whole note” sound similar, but the terms represent very different concepts (whole tone is a term for a specific interval, which, as I will explain in another chapter, is the distance between two pitches, while whole note is the rhythmic duration – or how long the pitch sounds in relation to the other pitches around it). You may have had the experience where you retrieve an incorrect word. If you stop to think about it, you’ll probably find that in one way or another, it is similar to the correct word. Association th 5 Crossroads: Popular Music in America (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 When we learn two items together in such a manner that the two are associated with each other, when one item is recalled, the other one will be recalled as well. For example, when most of us hear or read “Romeo,” we unconsciously add “Juliet.” This applies to visual images as well. Thus, when we see Apple’s apple logo, we think of the Apple computer company or if we see McDonald’s “golden arches,” we think of the fast food restaurant (Sousa, 2006, p. 145). Because everything we know and understand is preserved as a network of associations, the more associations we make, the greater the number of potential “hooks” we have upon which to attach new information. This is why the more we know, the easier it is for us to learn and remember new information. One of the strongest influences on transfer is emotional associations, as emotions typically have higher priority than cognitive processing for co...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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