Chapter4

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Unformatted text preview: results were tabulated, the census showed that the American and Native populations had grown by 26 percent using the single- race definition, and by 110 percent if combined with multiracial American Indian groups. Results of the census 9Encarta article. 10“The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos.” The National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/digest/feb03/w9198.html Accessed 1- 18- 05 11Some scholars have suggested that as much as 60% of this number, however, is due to changing definitions of what constitutes a Native American. 17 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 indicate that the current Native population can range from 2.5 million to 4.1 million, depending on how they are counted. 556 American Indian tribes are now recognized by the Federal government and receiving service by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. The policies of earlier centuries, however, continue to affect Indians. Today, Indians rank lowest in almost all measures of economic well- being. For example, the median income in 2011 was $35,192, which compares with $50,502 for the nation as a whole (U.S. 2010 Census). They also continue to suffer from poor health standards, and have the highest rates of infant mortality, disease and suicide in the nation. Their life expectancy is twenty- five years lower than the national average.12 Despite these grim statistics, Indian culture and the music that is such an integral part of that culture, continues to survive and to resist pressure to Americanize. Although contemporary statistics of health, education, unemployment rates, and income levels continue to show Native Americans as disadvantaged, the revitalization in the population and the increased political activism has created a resurgence of pride in their cultural heritage. By the late 1990s, more than 200 institutions had been established to preserve American history and culture. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 is providing Indians with the legal basis to prod museums into returning thousands of Indian artifacts and bones to the tribes and sites from which they were taken. Tribal languages and traditional arts, including music, are enjoying renewed vigor. CONCLUSION With greater population numbers and with the gains of several decades of political activism, there has been a resurgence of interest among Indians in their musical traditions. On one hand this has led to attempts to recreate music in traditional styles. It has also led to a variety of fusion efforts. Native American musicians are proud of their tribal heritage and they are interested in making music that is relevant and appealing in today’s world. The growth of the Nammy Awards attests to the increasing power and appeal of Native American music. Indian music traditions continue to survive as more and more young Native Americans use music to express both their individual and their group pride in their ethnic heritage. In the words of musician R. Douglas Nakai, “We’ve survived all this. We are still here.”13 Sidetrip 4C: The Nammys 12 Goldfield, David, et al. The American Journey, p. 622. 13 http://www.nammys.com/mediaroom.cfm, accessed 1- 15- 05 18 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 NATIVE AMERICAN STYLISTIC CATEGORIES Cultural decimation combined with the placement of previously unrelated tribes on single reservations has contributed to the development of a new genre called “pan- Indian” music. Pan- Indian music is partly the result of various resistance movements that urged Indians to submerge tribal divisions in favor of ethnic u...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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