New york wall street journal 10 september 1993 p 1 col

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Unformatted text preview: nity, believing that the solidarity would help Indians and Indian culture survive. Pan- Indian music is also the unavoidable consequence of previously unrelated tribes living together on single reservations. There are several consequences of this development. 1. Because the music is inter- tribal, earlier distinctions between different tribal traditions have been blurred. 2. There has been an increase in songs using vocables that may have come originally from a different tribe’s language, from Indian languages that have since disappeared, or are archaic words whose meanings have been forgotten. 3. The music has incorporated characteristics of non- Native traditions, particularly European traditions. 4. There has been the addition of a large body of music that is secular and social in function. Pan- Indian music is performed primarily at social events such as powwows. “Powwow” is the Anglicized version of the Algonquin word pau- au, which means a “gathering of holy men and spiritual leaders.” As was true with many other words, non- Indians mispronounced and misused the word. At first “powwow” was used to refer to a Plains Indian assembly, but it eventually became a word to describe any gathering of native peoples, and is now used to symbolize unity among Native Nations across the continent. Today powwows are social gatherings held for all sorts of reasons, from birthday celebrations to occasions to honor elders to memorials of the deceased.14 Powwows typically attract Indians from many different tribes. Even interested people of other races and ethnicities may participate occasionally in the dancing and singing. As the function of Native music has become more secularized, there has been a growing class of professional or semi- professional Indian singers and composers, with new emphasis on their compositional and music performing expertise instead of their non- musical expertise such as their spiritual power. Similarly, there has been a change in performance practice in that some of the music is now performed for an audience as entertainment. Below are descriptions of some of the common subcategories of powwow music. 14 Spotted Eagle, Douglas. Voices of Native America. Eagles View Publishing Company: Liberty, UT. (1997) p. 13 19 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 Click here to access the Listening Examples for Stylistic Categories or copy the following URL into a new browser window Young Bear Intertribal: A Field Recording at 40th Anniversary of the Oneida Powwow released in 2013 Four Native American Peyote Songs My Country Tis of Thy People You’re Dying by Buffy Sainte- Marie Plight of the Redman by Original XIT Closer to Far Away by Douglas Spotted Eagle Red House performed by Marc Brown and the Blues Crew 20 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 Category Description Listening Description Listening Example 21 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 Music for Powwows Traditional Drum Groups: Drum groups consist of a group of people who sit around a single, large round drum that is covered top and bottom and suspended among four posts. Each member of the group has a stick similar in weight and length. It is most common to have one or two lead drummers or singers who establish the beat and the melodic structure of the song. The rest of the members follow the rhythmic pattern of the leaders, and frequently join in at the second line of the song. In this recording you can hear many of the characteristics of powwow music, including the traditional drum group which provides the basis for the song; the call and response between the leader and the group; the high pitched voice and use of vocables; and the...
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