These tribal gaming operations have had both positive

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Unformatted text preview: downward. Harmony: The notes in this melody are not drawn from the major or minor scales with which we are most familiar, but instead from a pentatonic scale. The approximate pitches using our Western pitch system are F, G, A, C, and D, and the dominant interval is the Perfect 5th between C and F, with the melody starting on the C and moving downward to the F (although it momentarily dips below to the D). Another representative feature is that the pitch system gradually shifts downward such that by the end of the track, the ‘framework’ is a Perfect 4th lower, moving between F and Bb. Texture: This song is in heterophonic texture (the voices are basically singing the same pitches and melodies, but not in precise union (as would be the case, for example, in Gregorian chant). There is also considerable use of call- and- response. Notice as well how the voices are clearly occupying different physical locations, reflecting the value of sound within ‘space.’ Instrumentation: Listen for the drums and voice – this is the dominant instrumentation in traditional Native American music. Form: This is a ‘classic’ Native American repetition of a relatively short melodic phrase. Now listen to it a second time use the timing guide below to follow the form: “Intertribal 2” (Lakota) Timing Section Description 0:00 Intro Try to feel the ‘additive’ rhythm of accumulating beats performed on drums. 0:04 Call Listen for the leader’s vocal call 0:06 Response And now the group’s response. 0:13 Verse 1 Listen to the use of ‘vocables,’ non- translatable words. Here how the female (and possibly children’s?) voices join in about halfway through. 13 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 :31 Verse 2 Repetition of the basic melodic phrase – notice its downward contour. :48 Verse 3: Call and Response Version Listen for the leader’s call with the group response of the same basic melodic verse 1:14 Verse 4 1:32 Verse 5: Call and Response Version The pitch frame is slowly shifting downward. 1:40 Verse 6 1:58 Verse 7 Notice how the drums are getting louder and more intense 2:14 Verse 8: Call and Response Version 2:39 Verse 9 Notice how the drums get softer and then louder again. Also, if you were to compare these pitches with those at the beginning, you’d notice the had shifted from a starting pitch of approximately “C” to a starting pitch of “F.” 14 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT, PART 2 Impact of Europeans on Native Culture and Music Traditions European contact immediately altered native cultures and societies. For example, when Indians acquired manufactured articles such as metal utensils, axes, knives, blankets, and cloth, their native arts and crafts declined. The Spanish introduction of the horse revolutionized the way Indians had traditionally hunted buffalo, and whole tribal nations such as the Cheyenne and Arapaho became nomadic horse Indians, abandoning their historical patterns as farmers and village dwellers. Fur trade led to changes in social organization: since women dressed the hides, successful hunters secured more and more wives to do this required ancillary work, thereby increasing polygamy. Further changes occurred once Indians were confined to reservations. For example tribes that had been hunters or herdsmen were now transformed into farmers, while those who had been farmers were often relocated to land unsuitable for agriculture and thus forced into finding wage- earning jobs. Traditional patterns of property exchange were altered when officials insisted...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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