30 crossroads music of american cultures barkley

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Unformatted text preview: d trombone accompanied by a rhythm section of a tuba or string bass, banjo, and drums. Exuberance and volume were highly valued, and the entire ensemble improvised simultaneously within the confines of their specific roles. Early musicians and groups include Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, and King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (with Louis Armstrong on second trumpet). The term “Dixieland” has come to refer 23 this style of jazz as played by white musicians. Listen to this early version of “St. Louis Blues” by Louis Armstrong, which demonstrates the connections between early blues and jazz. Compare this with the Dixieland style of “Way Down Yonder in New Orleans.” Listening Example: St. Louis Blues by Louis Armstrong and “Way Down Yonder in New Orleans” by The Dukes of Dixieland Swing and Big Band The larger bands (12- 25 musicians) of the 1930s and 40s that evolved after jazz migrated to cities such as New York and Chicago. Associated with the “Swing Era,” the music often accompanied the new style of jitterbug dancing and had a more supple treatment of the rhythm that helped the music “swing” or “groove.” Famous ‘big bands’ were those led by Duke Ellington, King Oliver, and Count Basie (all African American) and then later white musicians such as Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, and Glen Miller. Listen to these two Big Band Classics and see if you can hear the differences in performance between the “African- American” band of Count Basie and the “White” band of Glenn Miller. Listening Examples: “Every Day I Got the Blues” sung by Joe Williams with Count Basie and In the Mood” with Glenn Miller” Bebop Bebop emerged in the 1940s as a reaction against the commercialized, polished swing that had become so famous with white bands. Representative musicians include Charlie Parker and John Birks “Dizzie” Gillespie. Bebop’s principal characteristics include improvisations derived from the harmonic structure rather than improvisations based on the melody; more complex harmonies; and smaller ensembles. Following is a description of several changes in the musical structure that characterized the shift from swing to bop. First, with the break from needing to accompany dancing, the rhythm became much freer and more complex, with one of the clearest shifts being a move away from accents on the first and t...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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