7 hard bop emerged on the east coast in the mid 1950s

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Unformatted text preview: es form: 37 The Standard 12-Bar Blues Harmonic Progression Vocal “Call” Instrumental “Response” A I7 I7 I7 I7 A IV7 IV7 I7 I7 B V7 IV7 I7 I7 A typical jazz style will then take either of these basic forms and then repeat them giving various solo instruments opportunities to improvise. In the Free Form style that emerged as part of the Avant- Garde in the 1960s, musicians consciously avoided the restrictions of form. Improvisation One of the most consistent characteristics of jazz is its emphasis on improvisation. Improvisation refers to a performance style in which the music is spontaneously created as opposed to re- creating music by following the directions provided by a composer on a notated score. As we have seen in previous chapters, improvisation is a strong characteristic of African music traditions and it continues to be one of the most distinguishing characteristics in African American music. At its earliest stage (the New Orleans style), jazz was collective improvisation. To some degree, as each new style became more mainstream (with increased influence from the European traditions), the emphasis on improvisation would give way to notation. But in the inevitable reaction, often as an attempt by African American musicians to reclaim their own musical tradition, the new style would re- assert an emphasis on improvisation. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: “ROUND MIDNIGHT” BY THELONIUS MONK PERFORMED BY HERBIE HANCOCK AND BOBBIE MCFERRIN Now let’s listen to “Round Midnight” to see how these structural characteristics are incorporated into a single jazz ‘standard’ that is reportedly the most- recorded jazz standard composed by a jazz musician. Please listen once just to hear the general structural characteristics: 38 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 Rhythm: The rhythm is basically a slow tempo quadruple that is played with lots of syncopation and fluidity. Melody: The melody consists of two 8- bar phrases that are repeated in varied manner as the instrumentalists and vocalist improvise Harmony: Listen for the complexity of the harmonic language. Consider doing an internet search for an image of the “lead sheet” (the notated guide jazz musicians use that includes the melody with the chord changes) so that you can see the difficult and intricate chords (such as a C- 7 b5) the piece uses. Texture: This song is in homophonic texture, with the primary melody either sung or played by the pianist. The other instruments provide the harmonic/rhythmic accompaniment. Instrumentation: This is a vocalist singing in a manner that evokes an instrumentalist – many people think it is an instrumentalist! A rhythm section (piano, drums, bass) provides the accompaniment to the vocalist. The pianist becomes ‘soloist’ for the two statements of the “A” phrase in the second statement “verse.” Form: This is the classic AABA form consisting of 32- bars subdivided into 8 phrases. This basic form is stated twice with a brief transition between the two. Now listen to it a second time use the timing guide below to follow the form: Herbie Hancock and Bobbie McFerrin’s “Round Midnight” Timing Section Description 0- :40 A Snare intro to vocals accompanied by rhythm section for 8 bars in qu...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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