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Unformatted text preview: rmonic vocabulary. Additionally, jazz musicians have brought back their own form of the earlier ecclesiastical modes (e.g., Dorian, Phyrgian, etc.) to serve as the basis from which many improvised melodies are derived. Texture, Instrumentation and Form Jazz uses both polyphonic and homophonic textures. In the earliest stage of jazz, New Orleans Style jazz, all the musicians improvised melodies simultaneously, creating a polyphonic texture. More typically, however, jazz will feature the ensemble or a soloist playing the principal melody while the remaining instruments provide harmonic accompaniment in a predominantly homophonic texture. The foundation of the jazz ensemble is the rhythm section, which is a sub- group of the main ensemble. The rhythm section consists of piano, string bass, drums, and optional guitar and it provides the rhythmic and harmonic foundation over which the melodic voices improvise. Beyond the rhythm section, the instrumentation varies with the style. Big Band music uses a large ensemble comprised of many different instrumental sections, while Bebop favors a smaller ensemble, such as a quintet of piano, bass, drums, reed instrument, and trumpet. Jazz uses a variety of formal patterns, but there are two forms that are the most common. The first is the form that is used in most popular- song choruses, which consists of 32 bars (measures) in an AABA form that follow any harmonic progression: 20 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 32- Bar Song Form A 8 Bars (Measures) A Repeat of the 8 Bars B The “Bridge” consisting of 8 new bars, often in a different but related key A Return to the original 8 Bars A second popular jazz form is the 12- bar blues form: The Standard 12-Bar Blues Harmonic Progression Vocal “Call” Instrumental “Response” A I7 I7 I7 I7 A IV7 IV7 I7 I7 B V7 IV7 I7 I7 A typical jazz style will then take either of these basic forms and then repeat them giving various solo instruments opportunities to improvise. In the Free Form style that emerged as part of the Avant- Garde in the 1960s, musicians consciously avoided the restrictions of form. Improvisation One of the most consistent characteristics of jazz is its emphasis on improvisation. Improvisation refers to a performance style in which the music is spontaneously c...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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