He made his debut album as a bandleader in 1968 and

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Unformatted text preview: with the innovative style that would become known as bebop or bop. Soon other clubs were also playing the new style, including Monroe’s, the Onyx, the Three Deuces, the Spotlight, the Hickory House, and Birdland, all of which became popular “bop” clubs in the early 1940s. In 1944, a twelve- piece bop- influenced swing band led by Coleman Hawkins that featured “Dizzy” Gillespie made the first bop records. The new music was given a name apparently derived from a feature of the new solos which was to end a phrase with two short notes on the downbeat which, expressed in words, sounded like “be- bop.”5 Charlie Parker made his first real bop records in 1945. At first, the new style was not accepted either by the general public or by many musicians. But by 1950, the intellectually and artistically challenging bop style had become the new force in jazz, and attracted several other musicians, including the pianists Bud Powell and Thelonius Monk, Miles Davis, and later Charles Mingus. Bop never became the incredibly popular style of music that swing did, partially because it wasn’t recorded much (there were recording bans from 1942- 44 and again in 1948) but primarily because it wasn’t very accessible music. Bop was music for musicians rather than for dancing or entertainment. It was intellectually and artistically sophisticated, and it did not provide the steady rhythm and recognizable melody music requires appealing to a general audience. After Charlie Parker died in 1955, it faded as the predominant new style and gave way to variations that became the “modern” jazz of the 1950s and 1960s. Two of the most important variations were cool jazz and hard bop. The 1950s and 60s: Cool Jazz and Hard Bop The main person responsible for developing “cool” jazz was one of the bop players, the trumpeter Miles Davis. Davis formed a unique ensemble in 1948 (reformed for recording sessions in 1949 and 1950) that augmented the traditional basic rhythm section of piano, bass, and drums with trumpet, trombone, French horn, tuba, and alto and baritone saxophones. Rather than improvising, the ensemble played music that was carefully written out to produce a very light, lyrical, sparse, and texturally delicate “cool” style of music. In 1949, they recorded an album Birth of the Cool, which prophesied the development of a new kind of music. Although not generally popular, this music was widely...
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