He soon abandoned his academic work to work as a

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Unformatted text preview: hear the harmonic progression that became the basis for the bebop song, “Ornithology.” Listening Examples: “Anthropology” with Dizzie Gillespie and “Ornithology” with Charlie Parker Cool Jazz Cool Jazz is a variation of Bebop (sometimes called “soft” Bop) that emerged in the late 1940s and early 1950s and was centered in California. The attribute of “cool” was achieved in a variety of ways, for example Mile Davis’s 1949- 50 ensemble’s light, sparse and lyrical sound as opposed to the dense, hot sound of Bebop and, in the music of white musicians such as Dave Brubeck, cool was achieved through the incorporation of European classical techniques (such as the formal organization of the music into fugues and rondos) that provided a kind of academic and intellectual calm. In the music of the Modern Jazz Quartet, “cool” was achieved not only through lighter textures and academic techniques but also through timbre, such as their use of the vibraphone with its diffused tonal qualities. Cool Jazz also shifted its emphasis from improvisation to the written score and often used a relaxed tempo that consciously avoided a “swinging” beat. Listen for the “cool” quality achieved in the general style plus the use of vibes in “All the Things You Are” and the academic, asynchronous ‘five’ meter (count 1- 2- 3- 4- 5) in Brubeck’s “Take Five.” Listening Examples: “All the Things You Are” by Modern Jazz Quartet and “Take Five” by Dave Brubeck Brazilian Jazz and Bossa Nova Brazilian musicians such as Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim blended Cool Jazz with Latin rhythms, subtly accentuated by acoustic guitar riffs, and lyrics sung in Portuguese and English. The term “bossa nova” translates literally as “new trend.” This style came to the United States in the early 1960s, with the international hit “Girl from Ipanema” and the style is now part of the standard jazz repertory. The example of “Bim- Bom” is bossa nova. This is one of the most famous Brazilian jazz songs of all time. It had already been popular in Brazil, but then the idea 25 for cutting an English version led to it being recorded by Gilberto’s wife, Astrud, who was the only one in the group who could speak English well enough. Her untrained voice and...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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