It had already been popular in brazil but then the

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Unformatted text preview: composers and musicians were solo- based (African improvisation is more typically community- based); improvised ornaments were just a few notes around the notated score using a prescribed vocabulary such as trills or mordents (African improvisation constituted the entire musical performance); European improvisation was in recognized classical forms and was often designed to demonstrate the virtuosity of the musician, etc. 31 At the same time, it is evident that since its inception, jazz has gone on to become a global phenomenon. American jazz groups were playing in Europe by the end of World War I, and by 1920, European musicians had assimilated enough jazz ideas to be able to perform jazz themselves. In a similar manner, jazz- influenced dance bands in South America were popular in the large capitals such as Buenos Aires and Caracas by the late 1920s. Africa and Japan have also produced a number of fine jazz musicians. But because of the ethnic focus of this book and the fundamental role African Americans have played in the origin and development of jazz, it is primarily the contributions of African American jazz musicians that we will look at in this chapter. SIDETRIP 2: THREE NEW JAZZ ENETERS: CHICAGO, NEW YORK AND KANSAS CITY Jazz in Chicago One of the major targets of migration out of the South was Chicago, and jazz historian Frederick Ramsey, Jr. estimates that by 1920, there were more than forty top New Orleans jazz musicians who had moved there. Thus Chicago began to replace New Orleans as the nation’s jazz center.17 Included in this group were Joseph “King” Oliver, Johnny Dodds, and the New Orleans Rhythm Kings. King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band became the most popular of these bands, and represented the culmination of the New Orleans style. In this band was Louis Armstrong, who had come to Chicago to join Oliver’s band in 1922. Performing in the New Orleans style, Oliver and Armstrong played duet breaks on their cornets, improvising in a fast, technically impressive, very exciting style. The popularity of their duets contributed to interest in solo improvisations and led to the general move away from the collective improvisation of the New Orleans style to the solo improvisation of later styles. New York The second most important magnet in the move out of New Orle...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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