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Unformatted text preview: straightforward manner contributed to the song’s appeal. Listening Examples: Bim- Bom by Sergio Mendez and Brazill 66 and Girl from Ipanema sung by Astrud Gilberto with Stan Getz Hard Bop and Soul Jazz An extension of Bebop, Hard Bop emerged on the East Coast in the mid- 1950s as a reaction against the West Coast Cool Jazz. Founded by pianist and composer Horace Silver, it attempted to bring back the emotional element and vitality that had been conscientiously subdued in Cool Jazz by reclaiming African American elements of the blues and gospel music. The Hammond organ was also used, and keyboardists (particularly Horace Silver) infused funky, Gospel- based vamps. Because of these characteristics, in was sometimes referred to as “Soul Jazz” and in its later variations, Soul Jazz became some of the most popular jazz styles of the 1960s. Listen to “Mercy, Mercy, Mercy” for the interplay between the musicians and the audience that is so strongly based in African traditions, along with the sheer ‘funkiness’ and contrast that to the “cool jazz” example above against which this was a reaction. “Mercy, Mercy, Mercy” by Cannonball Adderly and “Song for My Father” by Horace Silver Afro- Cuban or Latin Jazz With roots in Bebop, this style fused elements of jazz from North, South, and Central America. In general, Afro- Cuban or Latin jazz is distinguished by its use of complex, dance- based Latin rhythms, Spanish- language lyrics, and a driving, intense rhythm section. In particular, Latin percussion instruments such as the conga, timbale, bongo, vibes (a percussion instrument evolving out of the African- based marimba) that added electrically driven that added electrically driven resonators beneath a set of metal bars that are struck with small mallets) characterize this style. Representative musicians include Arturo Sandoval, Tito Puente, Mongo Santamaria, Pancho Sanchez, Chucho Valdes, and Pete Escovedo. Ry Cooder’s 1997 CD The Buena Vista Social Club and the film of the same name brought mainstream popularity to the style. Listen to the fusion of the Latin dance rhythms and instruments in both of these examples. Listening Example: Mambozooka with Tito Puente and “El Cuarto de Tula” with the Buena Vista Social Club Avante- Garde, Free Jazz and Modal Jazz Beginning in th...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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