This rhythmic flexibility is a direct descendent of

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Unformatted text preview: e late 1950s and lasting through most of the 1960s, this movement was initiated by Ornette Colman and was expanded by the musicians Sonny Rollins, Miles Davis, and John Coltrane. It emphasized freedom from limitations, including those imposed by the traditional treatment of key, harmonic progressions, form, rhythm and even the European sense of 26 Crossroads: Music of American Cultures (Barkley) Kendall Hunt Publishers, 2013 absolute pitch. It also challenged and abandoned the standard practice of using a melodic or harmonic basis for improvisation and even the ensemble arrangement structure. As jazz musicians searched for new ways to create fresh sounds, they moved beyond the major and minor harmonic systems by drawing from European medieval church modes. These modes, identified by names such as Dorian, Mixolydian, and Phrygian, had different interval patterns and allowed soloists an expanded repertoire of tones and an alternative organizational context from which to improvise. Listen for the sophisticated harmonies and free, improvisatory style in both of these selections that characterize the highly experimental qualities of these styles of jazz and that make them challenging to many untrained listeners. Listening Examples: “A Love Supreme” by John Coltrane and “Work” with Thelonius Monk Fusion This term refers to a new style of jazz that emerged in the mid- 1960s and gained momentum in the 1970s as the result of fusing elements of rock with jazz. Rock elements included amplified, electronic instruments, rock rhythms, and a heavy rock beat. Begun by Miles Davis with younger musicians including Herbie Hancock and Wayne Shorter, the concept was expanded by groups such as Chicago, Blood, Sweat, and Tears, and Steely Dan. In the 1980s, musicians such as Sting and Joni Mitchell continued to fuse jazz elements into their own music styles. These recordings have become popular with audiences that do not otherwise listen to jazz. ” Listen to Blood, Sweat and Tear’s Cover of Billie Holiday’s song, and then notice the referencing of Horace Silver’s “Song for My Father” in the intro to Steely Dan’s famous hit, “Rikki Don’t Lose that Number.” Listening Examples: “God Bless the Child” by Blood...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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