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Unformatted text preview: ders. By the late 1970s, the avant- garde had given way to music that was more accessible and philosophical, but its core characteristics- - - freedom from the strictures of traditional form, harmony, and rhythm along with intense emotion- - - continued to influence more mainstream jazz. Fusion While the avant- garde was esoteric and appealed primarily to a small group of jazz aficionados, another movement was bringing jazz to larger audiences. This was the movement of jazz and rock fusion, a term that was applied in the late 1960s to a new kind of music that integrated elements of jazz with elements of rhythm- and- blues and rock music. In 1964, Miles Davis formed a new group with younger musicians that included drummer Tony Williams, bassist Ron Carter, the pianist Herbie Hancock, and saxophonist Wayne Shorter. In 1968, they recorded two albums, Miles in the Sky and Filles de Kilmanjaro, which had elements of rock. In the first album, Herbie Hancock played electric piano and in the second, there was the use of rock rhythms and a heavy beat. In 1969, the Davis group released In a Silent Way, an album that used a number of electric instruments and in 1970, they released the highly influential Bitches Brew. These albums demonstrated that it was possible to use rock musical idioms in a way that was more sensitive and complex. Consequently, other groups also began to incorporate rock elements into a jazz ensemble, or jazz elements into a rock ensemble. The first fusion group to achieve significant popular success was the group Blood, Sweat and Tears, formed in 1968. BS & T consisted of a strong vocalist, David Clayton- Thomas, who sang with an ensemble of a typical rock band augmented by a jazz- oriented horn section. The success of BS&T inspired 9 other fusion groups, including Tower of Power, Chicago (originally Chicago Transit Authority), Weather Report, and the Mahavishnu Orchestra. Along with these groups, two keyboardists were also important to fusion. The first of these, Chick Corea, had worked with Latin- flavored jazz bands led by Mongo Santamaria in the early 1960s. He made his debut album as a bandleader in 1968 and then proceeded through a variety of styles, including working on and off with Miles Davis. He also performed with a trio formed in 1970 known as Cir...
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This document was uploaded on 02/16/2014.

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