Organic Chem

Organic Chem - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I. Introduction. A....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I. Introduction. A. General 1. Chemistry of the compounds of carbon except CO 3 2- , SCN - OCN - , and CN - . a. Carbon is the smallest element in group 14. Tends to form strong homonuclear bonds Bonds are slow to break ( high activation energies for C C cleavage). b. All organic compounds are unstable to combustion. They react with O 2 to give CO 2 , H 2 O, and oxides of other elements. 2. In compounds C can be bonded to 2, 3 or 4 other elements. a. Bonding possibilities. Lewis Diagram Bond Type Hybridization Geometry C triple+single sp linear = C = 2 doubles sp linear C = 2 singles+double sp 2 trigonal planar C 4 singles sp 3 tetrahedral B. Types of organic compounds. 1. Hydrocarbons contain only C and H. a. Alkanes all C's form only single bonds, the C's are sp 3 hybridized. b. Alkenes Have at least one C=C, at least two C's are sp 2 hybridized. c. Alkynes Have at least one C C, at least two C's are sp hybridized. 2. Functional group compounds. a. Replace a H on a hydrocarbon with a group of atoms other than C and H. b. Such groups are called functional groups. They impart the specific chemical reactivity to the compound.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 II. Hydrocarbons. A. Alkanes ( saturated hydrocarbons, paraffins). 1. CH 4 Methane a. All alkanes end in ane . b. Lewis diagram: H H C H H c. Methyl radical CH 3 Radical = fragment of a molecule. To form a radical, remove a hydrogen . Radicals end in yl . Drop the ane on the hydrocarbon name and add yl . 2. C 2 H 6 Ethane a. Structural Formula: CH 3 CH 3 b. Lewis diagram H C C H H H H H c. Ethyl radical: CH 3 CH 2 3. C 3 H 8 Propane a. Structural Formula: CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 b. Lewis diagram: H C H H C H H C H H H c. Propyl radical. Have two different kinds of H's on propane. 1) Remove one of the six end H's obtain CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 called the n - propyl radical ( n = normal ). 2) Remove one of the two interior H's obtain CH 3 CHCH 3 called the isopropyl radical
Background image of page 2
3 4. C 4 H 10 Butane a. Two different structures. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n - butane CH 3 CHCH 3 isobutane CH 3 b. Isomers = compounds with the same molecular formulas but with different forms. All alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2 This particular type of isomerism is called structural isomerism . n - butane and isobutane are structural isomers. c. n - butane = a straight chain hydrocarbon. C atoms are in a continuous chain. isobutane = a branched chain hydrocarbon. d. The shapes are shown using line diagrams
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 34

Organic Chem - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I. Introduction. A....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online