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1 the english and spanish colonies were established

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Unformatted text preview: and manipulated Native Americans and used them to do manual labor on the land. - English relied on African American slaves and sometimes indentured white servants to do their manual labor. Native Americans died or caught diseases too quickly on colonial plantations to be efficacious. - Spanish Colonies also lacked natural resources, thus resulting in slow economic development - The English Colonies had abundant natural resources: fur trade, fishing, lumbering, farming and other industries that produced raw materials. This abundance of natural resources stimulated trade into the colonies as developed industries in Europe required raw materials to convert into refined goods. In your own words — and incorporating comparative examples from any languages you know or from examples in class or section — what is the relationship between language and culture? Why should the general English- speaking public care about language diversity? You can structure this as a formal essay or as a dinner- table conversation with your family. Describe how gold/mining has affected at least two groups of Native Americans in history: [Hints: several examples from Spanish colonial period, gold mining in Georgia gold rush in 1828 & California gold rush in 1849] Federal Indian Policy—United States Age of Discovery Christian Dominion Papal Bulls (15th century) Romanus Pontifex (1454) Inter Caetera (1493) Treaty- Making Marshall Trilogy Johnson v. M’Intosh (1823) Doctrine of Discovery Right of Occupancy Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1832) “domestic dependent nations” Worcester v. Georgia (1833) Congressional plenary power/Paternalism 1830s: Removal Policy 1840s: Reservations 1870s: Assimilation Policy End of treaty making Boarding Schools (1879) Major Crimes Act (1885) General Allotment Act/Dawes Act (1887) 1930s: Cultural Pluralism Indian New Deal Indian Citizenship Act (1924) Indian Reorganization Act (1934) 1940s: Termination Indian Claims Commission Act (1946) HCR 108 Public Law 280 Relocation 1960s: Self- Determination A IM ISDEAA (1975) AIRFA (1978) NAGPRA (1990) NALA (1990/1992) SPANISH COLONIZATION MAJOR EVENTS/POLICIES Papal Bulls (15th century) Inter Caetera, 1493 Romanus Pontifex, 1454 Requerimiento (16th century) (Requirement) Reducciones (Reducctions) Dual republics República de Españoles (Republic of Spaniards) República de Indios (Republic of Indians) Leyes de Burgos (Laws of Burgos), 1512 Leyes Nuevas (New Laws) 1542 Valladolid Debates, 1550 Bartolomé De las Casas Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda Native slavery Encomiendas (land grants) Repartimiento (draft labor) Latifundismo Hacienda expansion 17th, 18th, and Silver production 19th centuries Indigenous citizenship 19th century Liberalism (19th century: 1820s) Privatization laws Assimilation Indigenismo (1920s) Land reforms (20th century: 1930s, 1960s, 1980s) Neoliberalism (1990s) Neo- latifundismo Economic development...
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