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species. Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Sudra When communities grew larger,
more complex, and closer
together, new political, social,
and economic systems became
necessary. Untouchable Collective learning increased, further fueling advances in technology.
Although the vast majority of people still inhabited rural farming villages, more
people than ever before began living in large cities.
22 Expanding Networks
What is a
exchange? That’s easy! A network of
exchange is a web of
connections through which
people, goods, and ideas
circulate. Telephones, the
Internet, and highways are all
networks of exchange. 23 Expanding Networks
Routes Around 300 BCE to 300 CE, merchants,
shippers, sea captains, and empire-builders
extended and strengthened trade routes
across Afroeurasia and the Americas.
across Empires Empires required networks of military and
political communication. These networks
encouraged interaction of many kinds over
long Writing With the appearance of alphabetic writing
systems in Afroeurasia, people could
communicate faster and easier than ever
before. Religions The appearance of world religions—
Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, and
Christianity—stimulated cultural interchange
across political and cultural boundaries.
24 Expanding Networks:
In the Americas...
The Olmec of Mexico developed extensive trade
networks that extended hundreds of miles from
Olmec territory. They imported jade and other raw
materials for their crafts. Their exports included
pottery and sculpture.
pottery The Tiwanakans in what is today Bolivia also
began to build trade routes during Big Era
Four. Llama caravans brought produce,
wood, metals, and fish from outlying villages
to the city of Tiwanaku.
to 25 Expanding Networks:
The silk road,
Persian royal road,
Roman roads, and
combined to form
A wide variety of goods
flowed along these
26 Expanding Networks:
Routes On the map are some of the
goods traded along the
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This document was uploaded on 01/03/2014.
- Fall '13