Solution Reaction

Solution Reaction - SOLUTION REACTIONS I Solutions A Definitions 1 Solution = homogeneous mixture of two or more components 2 Solvent = component

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1 SOLUTION REACTIONS I. Solutions A. Definitions 1. Solution = homogeneous mixture of two or more components. 2. Solvent = component present to largest extent. Phase of solution is same as the phase of the solvent. a. In some cases the solvent is not a pure substance . Mixed solvents are used in many reactions . b. In a few cases a minor component is chosen as the solvent for convenience. For example, concentrated sulfuric acid is 98% H 2 SO 4 and 2% water by mass but water is still considered the “solvent”. c. When the solvent is water the solute is said to be in an aqueous solution 3. Solute = minor component of the mixture. a. The solute is dispersed throughout the solvent. b. Concentration = a number giving the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount solution or dispersed in a given amount of solvent. B. Types of Solutes. Can classify solutes in terms of the properties of their solutions. 1. Electrolyte = substance that dissolve in water to yield a conducting solution. Dissolves to produce ions. 2. Strong electrolytes = 100% ionized in water a. Ionic compounds NaCl, KNO 3 , MgSO 4 b. Strong acids. Common strong acids are: HCl, HI, HBr, HNO 3 ,HClO 4 ,H 2 SO 4 HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - H 3 O + = hydronium ion 3. Weak electrolytes = not 100% ionized in water. a. Weak acids Example HC 2 H 3 O 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + C 2 H 3 O 2 b. Weak ammonia-type bases NH 3 = ammonia NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - 4. Nonelectrolytes = solutes that do not ionize in water. a. Exist in solution as neutral molecules b. Examples: Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH)
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2 B. Solubility - All ionic compounds are strong electrolytes in that they are 100% ionized, however some are not particularly soluble in water. Qualitatively the solubility of most common salts adhere to the following rules. 1. Most all Group 1 and NH 4 + are soluble irrespective of the anion. 2. All nitrates (NO 3 - ), perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) , chlorates (ClO 3 - ) , and acetates (C 2 H 3 O 2 - ) are soluble irrespective of the cation. 3. Except for the cations listed in Rule 1, all carbonates (CO 3 2- ), phosphates (PO 4 3- ), sulfides (S 2- ), and sulfites (SO 3 2- ) are insoluble. 4. Most hydroxides (OH - ) are insoluble except when the cation is a heavier Group 2 or one of those covered in Rule 1 5. Most chlorides (Cl - ), bromides (Br - ), and iodides (I - ) are soluble except when the cation is Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , and Pb 2+. 6. Most sulfates (SO 4 2- ) are soluble except for the heavier Group 2 (Ba 2+ , Ca 2+ ) , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ , with Ag 2 SO 4 being moderately soluble. II. Solution reactions. A. Net Ionic Reactions. 1. Consider the following double displacement reaction run in aqueous solution.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 1304 taught by Professor Prof.maguire during the Spring '08 term at SMU.

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Solution Reaction - SOLUTION REACTIONS I Solutions A Definitions 1 Solution = homogeneous mixture of two or more components 2 Solvent = component

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